Cuneiform Digital Library Journal
2012:001
ISSN 1540-8760
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The Cuneiform Collection of the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts


Xiaoli Ouyang <xouyang@post.harvard.edu >
New York , NY

W. R. Brookman <wrbrookm@northcentral.edu >
Institute for Biblical and Theological Studies
North Central University



Keywords
Cuneiform, Ur III, administrative, Peabody Essex Museum


 

 

§0. Acknowledgements
We thank first of all Mr. Matthew DelGrosso, a collection specialist from the Peabody Essex Museum (PEM hereafter), who helped track down this collection, made arrangements for Xiaoli Ouyang to study it, and hosted her during her two visits to the PEM. In addition, Mr. DelGrosso kindly provided Xiaoli Ouyang with an object report on the collection and was tremendously patient with all her questions and requests. We also thank two conservators at the Museum, Ms. Mimi Leveque and Ms. Kathryn M. Carey, who kindly allowed Xiaoli Ouyang to study the collection in their lab and to use their facilities during her visits. Moreover, Ms. Leveque helped Xiaoli Ouyang distinguish the tablet E53807 from its cast E59476. In addition, we would like to thank Mr. John Grimmes, former Director of the PEM, who facilitated W. R. Brookman's access to the collection. We are grateful to Piotr Steinkeller at Harvard University, who greatly assisted W. R. Brookman during his tenure as a Mellon Faculty Fellow there and later suggested that Xiaoli Ouyang continue with the work started by W. R. Brookman. Marcel Sigrist at the École biblique et archéologique française de Jérusalem offered many acute insights into the understanding of these tablets and the structure of this article. We greatly appreciate his input. We thank Steven Cole for his help with the tablet E59468 and Rudi Mayr for his advice on the seal impressions of E15551 and E53743. Thanks also go to Beate Pongratz-Leisten in the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World at New York University, who shared with Xiaoli Ouyang her thoughts about the two stele fragments E5608 and E54113. Last but not least, we thank the two anonymous reviewers, whose comments helped to improve this edition enormously. Any mistake or error, though, is our sole responsibility. For photographs of the tablets, we are deeply indebted to Christine Bertoni of the PEM, who arranged for the photographs to be taken; to Robert K. Englund, who negotiated on our behalf with the PEM about photographing the tablets; and to Lance Allred of CDLI, who traveled to the PEM to digitize the tablets.

 

§1. Introduction
§1.1. The Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts, houses a Mesopotamian collection consisting of 103 objects in total: 89 cuneiform tablets (including a cast of one tablet), two clay cones, two stele fragments, seven cylinder seals, and three seal impressions made by seals missing from the collection. There are five additional tablets (E53472, E53972, E54910, E59470, E59476a) that appear in the PEM object report (courtesy of Matthew DelGrosso) but that Xiaoli Ouyang could not locate in the collection. All objects are published here except the cylinder seals and seal impressions.

 

§1.2. This collection consists of objects loaned or donated to PEM by the Andover Newton Theological School in Newton Centre, Massachusetts, and the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts. We found some clues linking this collection to Edgar J. Banks. There are two tablets, E29123 and E29124, each accompanied by a note signed by him and containing his opinion of the date, genre, and provenience of the tablet.

 

§1.3. W. R. Brookman began to work on this collection when he was an Andrew W. Mellon Faculty Fellow at Harvard University from 1990 to 1991. He transliterated and translated 75 tablets (74 from the Ur III period and one probably from the Old Babylonian period).

 

§1.4. In 2009, Xiaoli Ouyang made two research visits to this collection to collate the tablets first studied by Brookman and to work on the objects that were not completed in his project (twelve Ur III tablets: E15550, E15551, E15552, E23589, E29122, E29123, E29124, E34352, E59404, E59462, E59463, E59466; six non-Ur III objects: E5608, E15549, E53807, E54113, E59475, E59476). Her visits were supported by a Franklin Research Grant from the American Philosophical Society awarded in March 2009 and a research allowance from the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World of New York University, where she worked as a Visiting Research Scholar during the academic year 2009-2010. Most revisions of this article were made during the year 2010-2011, when Xiaoli Ouyang was a Noble Group Fellow at the W. F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research in Jerusalem. Her work was greatly facilitated by access to the library of the École biblique et archéologique française de Jérusalem. We thank all these institutes and fellowship sponsors for their generous support.

 

§2. The Collection
§2.1. Catalogue of PEM tablets

no. PEM no. date provenience contents dimensions (cm)
3.1 E23589 AS 7/vi/6 Umma Inspection of workload 4.21 × 3.38 × 1.56
3.2 E53806 AS 9 Umma Receipt of workdays 4.62 × 4.16 × 1.7
3.3 E59415 SS 2 Umma Receipt of workdays 4.58 × 4.47 × 1.61
3.4 E15550 IS 2 Umma Earthwork related to an irrigation dike 10.63 × 5.44 × 2.48
3.5 E34352 SH 40/ix Umma Receipt of barley 4.22 × 3.73 × 1.62
3.6 E29123 SH 46/x Umma Receipt of barley as “ration” 3.15 × 3.02 × 1.48
3.7 E59413 AS 2/vii Umma Receipt of barley as “ration” 4.6 × 4 × 1.5
3.8 E59402 SS 2/ii/9 Umma Receipt of flour 4.43 × 3.82 × 1.55
3.9 E59416 SS 2 Umma Receipt of barley 4.94 × 4.1 × 1.8
3.10 E59431 SH 47 Umma Delivery of copper sickles into warehouse 4.07 × 3.46 × 1.75
3.11 E15552 AS 3/x Umma Receipt of copper objects 4.54 × 4.16 × 1.91
3.12 E59435 AS 5 Umma? Tag of a basket for storing tablets 3.73 × 3.4 × 1.9
3.13 E15551 No date Umma Poorly preserved letter? 3.74 × 3.78 × 1.39
3.14 E29122 No date Umma Receipt? of livestock 2.11 × 2.11 × 1.31
3.15 E59403 No date Umma List of arrears due 5.71 × 4.13 × 2.32
4.1 E59457 SH 43/iv/20 Drehem Receipt of livestock 3.1 × 2.73 × 1.45
4.2 E53742 SH 43/v Drehem Receipt of livestock 3.82 × 3.38 × 1.82
4.3 E59179 SH 43/vi/23 Drehem Receipt of livestock 3 × 2.68 × 1.46
4.4 E59444 SH 43/x/23 Drehem Receipt of livestock 3.46 × 3.14 × 1.63
4.5 E59447 SH 44/v Drehem Receipt of livestock 3.15 × 2.84 × 1.55
4.6 E53739 AS 2/xii Drehem Receipt of wool 3.78 × 3.19 × 1.73
4.7 E59427 AS 3/i Drehem Receipt of livestock 5.13 × 4.05 × 1.88
4.8 E59406 AS 9/x Drehem Receipt of livestock 6.64 × 2.83 × 0.74
4.9 E59459 Day 25 Drehem Receipt of livestock 2.98 × 2.65 × 1.38
4.10 E59474 SH 42/AS 6/i/29 Drehem Transfer of livestock 3.15 × 2.73 × 1.32
4.11 E59463 SH 42/AS 6/iv/23 Drehem Transfer of livestock 2.64 × 2.4 × 1.3
4.12 E59441 SH 44/v/12 Drehem Transfer of livestock 3.63 × 3.12 × 1.7
4.13 E59452 SH 44/v/12 Drehem Transfer of livestock 3.2 × 2.91 × 1.03
4.14 E59471 SH 45/AS 2/i/19 Drehem Transfer of livestock 3.14 × 2.91 × 1.53
4.15 E59425 SH 47/xi/25 Drehem Transfer of livestock 4.43 × 3.51 × 1.88
4.16 E59440 SH 48 Drehem Transfer of livestock 3.53 × 3.11 × 1.55
4.17 E59412 AS 2/vii/11 Drehem Transfer of livestock 2.47 × 2.25 × 1.15
4.18 E59461 AS 3/iv/7 Drehem Transfer of livestock 2.72 × 2.46 × 1.37
4.19 E59410 AS 4/xii/7 Drehem Transfer of livestock 2.72 × 2.3 × 1.2
4.20 E59453 AS 4/?/9 Drehem Transfer of livestock 3.06 × 2.73 × 1.54
4.21 E59422 AS 5/x/3 Drehem Transfer of livestock 4.36 × 4.37 × 2.18
4.22 E53747 AS 7/x/13 Drehem Transfer of livestock 3.7 × 3.39 × 1.52
4.23 E59451 AS 8/ix Drehem Transfer of livestock 3.14 × 2.87 × 1.66
4.24 E59423 SS 4/i/28? Drehem Transfer of livestock 4.42 × 3.73 × 1.81
4.25 E59469 SS 6 Drehem Transfer of livestock 5.62 × 4.08 × 1.98
4.26 E59417 Month ii/iii Drehem Transfer of livestock 4.42 × 3.84 × 1.64
4.27 E59418 Date broken Drehem Transfer of livestock 7.5 × 4.5 × 2.02
4.28 E59437 SH 43/vi Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 3.69 × 3.39 × 1.65
4.29 E59454 SH 46/v/30 Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 2.96 × 2.67 × 1.33
4.30 E59450 SH 47/xii/8 Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 3.19 × 2.89 × 1.5
4.31 E59421 SH 48/x/30 Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 3.84 × 4.55 × 2.14
4.32 E59420 SH 48/xii/21 Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 6.41 × 4.33 × 1.83
4.33 E59409 AS 2/ix/14 Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 3.28 × 2.97 × 1.45
4.34 E59408 AS 4/i/4 Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 4.79 × 3.71 × 1.86
4.35 E59424 AS 4/iii/16 Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 4.3 × 3.56 × 1.61
4.36 E59436 AS 5/ix/9 Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 3.75 × 3.27 × 1.65
4.37 E59430 AS 5/ix/26 Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 5.03 × 3.67 × 1.85
4.38 E59407 AS 6/viii/29 Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 6.09 × 3.97 × 2.02
4.39 E59442 AS 8/x/26 Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 3.69 × 3.19 × 1.59
4.40 E59426 AS 9/x/9 Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 5.55 × 4 × 1.62
4.41 E59434 AS 9/x Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 4.21 × 3.67 × 1.6
4.42 E59445 SS 1/ii/6 Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 3.21 × 2.82 × 1.45
4.43 E59429 SS 2/ix/29 Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 4.92 × 4.32 × 1.89
4.44 E59419 SS 3/xii/29 Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 6.34 × 4.34 × 1.9
4.45 E59438 SS 4/v/26 Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 4.05 × 3.35 × 1.65
4.46 E59428 SS 4/ix/1 Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 3.66 × 3.25 × 1.55
4.47 E59404 SS 6/iv/28 Drehem Withdrawal of livestock 9.91 × 5.62 × 2.46
4.48 E59465 SS 4/ii/21 Drehem Receipt of slaughtered livestock 2.3 × 2.3 × 1.25
4.49 E59464 SH 44/iii/4 Drehem Receipt of slaughtered livestock 2.3 × 2.22 × 1.28
4.50 E59446 SH 44/iv/20 Drehem Receipt of slaughtered livestock 3.14 × 2.93 × 1.6
4.51 E59460 SH 44/iv/20 Drehem Receipt of slaughtered livestock 2.4 × 2.3 × 1.25
4.52 E59458 SH 46/ii/11 Drehem Receipt of slaughtered livestock 2.73 × 2.37 × 1.37
4.53 E59467 SH 46/iv/12 Drehem Receipt of slaughtered livestock 2.16 × 1.97 × 1.19
4.54 E59439 SH 46/v/29 Drehem Receipt of slaughtered livestock 3.18 × 2.89 × 1.49
4.55 E59462 SH 47/i/7 Drehem Receipt of slaughtered livestock 2.31 × 2.16 × 1.35
4.56 E59411 SH 47/i/16 Drehem Receipt of slaughtered livestock 2.48 × 2.34 × 1.32
4.57 E59449 AS 2/x/9 Drehem Receipt of slaughtered livestock 3 × 2.73 × 1.7
4.58 E59455 AS 4/xii/12 Drehem Receipt of slaughtered livestock 3.41 × 3.07 × 1.5
4.59 E59473 AS 8/iv/9 Drehem Receipt of slaughtered livestock 2.55 × 2.35 × 1.35
4.60 E59466 SS 2/x/8 Drehem Receipt of slaughtered livestock 2.05 × 1.97 × 1.32
4.61 E59456 SS 4/xi/17 Drehem Receipt of slaughtered livestock 3.08 × 2.79 × 1.45
4.62 E59432 SS 9/xi/5 Drehem Receipt of slaughtered livestock 3.68 × 3.15 × 1.59
4.63 E59472 SH 42/AS 6/v Drehem Withdrawal of slaughtered livestock 3.24 × 2.65 × 1.49
4.64 E59414 IS 2/xii/13 Drehem Receipt of bala-deliveries 4.04 × 3.75 × 1.65
5.1 E53740 SH 42/AS 6/xii Unknown Receipt of flour as wage 3.66 × 3.21 × 1.45
5.2 E59433 SH 46 Unknown Withdrawal of work-days 3.47 × 3.31 × 1.7
5.3 E59448 SH 48 Unknown Withdrawal of lard 3.63 × 3.23 × 1.68
5.4 E59443 SS 2/iv Unknown Distribution of barley as šuku 3.79 × 3.48 × 1.63
5.5 E53743 SS 9/xi Unknown Receipt of silver 4.7 × 4.11 × 1.59
5.6 E59405 No date Girsu? List of furniture pieces 6.91 × 5.56 × 2.43
5.7 E29124 No date Unknown Delivery of barley and silver 3.72 × 3.25 × 1.42
6.1 E15549 Isin-Larsa Uruk Royal inscription (clay cone) Ø3.96, length 6.2
6.2 E59475 Isin-Larsa Isin Royal inscription (clay cone) Ø5.13, length 11.7
6.3 E59468 Old Babylonian Larsa? Loan (damaged envelope with tablet inside) 4.85 × 4.11 × 2.75
6.4 E54113? Neo-Assyrian Kalhu Royal inscription (stele fragment) 10.2 × 32.8 × 1.8
6.5 E5608 Neo-Assyrian? Unknown Royal inscription (stele fragment) 12.1 × 7.85 × 1.1
6.6 E53807 Neo-Babylonian? Unknown Unclear (tablet) 5.99 × 5.4 × 1.7

 

§2.2. Concordance

 

PEM no.PublicationPEM no.Publication
E56086.5E594294.42
E155496.1E594304.37
E155503.4E594313.10
E155513.13E594324.62
E155523.11E594335.2
E235893.1E594344.41
E291223.14E594353.12
E291233.6E594364.36
E291245.7E594374.28
E343523.5E594384.45
E537394.6E594394.54
E537405.1E594404.16
E537424.2E594414.12
E537435.5E594424.39
E537474.22E594435.4
E538063.2E594444.4
E538076.6E594454.42
E54113 ?6.4E594464.50
E591794.3E594474.5
E594023.8E594485.3
E594033.15E594494.57
E594044.47E594504.30
E594055.6E594514.23
E594064.8E594524.13
E594074.38E594534.20
E594084.34E594544.29
E594094.33E594554.58
E594104.19E594564.61
E594114.56E594574.1
E594124.17E594584.52
E594133.7E594594.9
E594144.64E594604.51
E594153.3E594614.18
E594163.9E594624.55
E594174.26E594634.11
E594184.27E594644.49
E594194.44E594654.48
E594204.32E594664.60
E594214.31E594674.53
E594224.21E594686.3
E594234.24E594694.25
E594244.35E594714.14
E594254.15E594724.63
E594264.40E594734.59
E594274.7E594744.10
E594284.46E594756.2

§2.3. General Remarks
§2.3.1 Ur III documents are dated by regnal years. Listed below are abbreviations for the Ur III kings and the absolute dates of their reigns according to the Middle Chronology: SH = Šulgi (2094-2047 BC; 48 years), AS = Amar-Suen (2046-2038 BC; 9 years), SS = Šu-Sin (2037-2029 BC; 9 years), and IS = Ibbi-Sin (2028-2004 BC; 24 years). The months are represented by Roman letters in the date of a text. We follow M. Cohen (1993) in the reading and translation of month names. The appendix in Sigrist & Gomi (1991: 317-375) provides convenient access to the month names and year names of the Ur III period.

 

§2.3.2 We generally follow BDTNS and CDLI in our use of siglum for any document cited in our comments. Our transliteration of numerical and metrological graphemes follows C. Proust (2009). Her study also illustrates the numerical relationships between the commonly used metrological units in ancient Mesopotamia. For quick reference, we list below the metrological units attested in the texts and their modern counterparts. The words in parentheses offer the English translations we use here for some metrological units.

Capacity: 1 gur = 5 barig = 30 ban2 = 300 sila3 ≈ 300 liters (1 sila3 ≈ 1 liter)
Volume: 1 sar ≈ 18 cubic meters
Weight: 1 gu2 = 60 ma-na (mina) = 3,600 gin2 (shekel) = 648,000 še (grains) ≈ 30 kilograms
Area: 1 bur3 = 3 eše3 = 18 iku = 1800 sar ≈ 6.5 ha
Length: 1 ninda(n) ≈ 6 meters

 

§3. Ur III Documents from Umma
§3.0. Fifteen Umma documents deal with several subjects: labor, barley/flour, copper items, and others. The four labor records consist of one inspection report of field work (gurum2; no. 3.1), two receipts of work-days (nos. 3.2-3), and a calculation of earthwork construction concerning a dike (no. 3.4). The next subgroup includes two receipts of flour (nos. 3.8-9) and three receipts of barley (nos. 3.5-7); the barley received is described as “rations” in two cases (še-ba; nos. 3.6-7). Following are two receipts of copper items (nos. 3.10-11). The remaining four feature a tablet basket tag (no. 3.12), two possible receipts (nos. 3.13-14), and a list of arrears (no. 3.15) concerning unidentified goods.

 

§3.1. Inspection of workload
Museum No.: E23589
Date: AS 7/vi/6
Provenience: Umma

 

§3.1.1

obv. 1.   1(eše3) GAN2 geš-ur3-[ra] 1 eše3 land for harrowing
  2.   1(geš2) guruš al 5(diš) sar-ta 60 workers each hoeing 5 sar
  3.   lu2-dutu engar Lu-Utu the plot manager,
  4.   1(eše3) GAN2 geš-ur3-ra 1 eše3 land for harrowing
  5.   1(geš2) guruš al 5(diš) sar-ta 60 workers each hoeing 5 sar
  6.   nimgir-he2-du7 ˹engar˺ Nimgir-hedu the plot manager,
  7.   1(eše3) GAN2 geš-ur3-ra 1 eše3 land for harrowing
  8.   1(geš2) guruš al 5(diš) sar-ta 60 workers each hoeing 5 sar
rev. 1.   apin-zi engar Apin-zi the plot manager,
  2.   1(eše3) GAN2 geš-˹ur3-ra˺ 1 eše3 land for harrowing
  3.   1(geš2) guruš al 5(diš) ˹sar˺-ta 60 workers each hoeing 5 sar
  4.   dšara2-mu-[DU] ˹engar˺ Šara-mudu the plot manager,
  5.   1(eše3) GAN2 geš-ur3-ra 1 eše3 land for harrowing
  6.   1(geš2) guruš al 5(diš) sar-ta 60 workers each hoeing 5 sar
  7.   ba-la ˹engar˺ Bala the plot manager;
  8.   a-ša3 me-en-kar2 (in) the field named Menkar;
  9.   gurum2 u4 6(diš)-kam inspection on the 6th day.
  10.   ˹iti˺ šu-numun Month: “Sowing.”
left edge 1.   mu hu-uh3-nu-riki ba-hul Year: “Huhnuri was destroyed.”

 

§3.1.2. This text appears to be an inspection report on the area of land to be harrowed and on the plot managers responsible for this task.
Obv. 3: The term engar refers to the leader of a plowing team during the Ur III period. In Umma, such a team consisted of one manager and three assistants and supposedly cultivated one unit of domain land, usually six bur in area. The study of K. Maekawa (1987) lays out the organization of agricultural personnel in Umma.
Rev. 8: The field Menkar might be located near or in the region of Gu’edena (Ouyang 2010: 331).
Rev. 9: The term gurum2, written as IGI.GAR, refers to the inspection of people. It is easily confused with another expression igi ... kar2, which means “to examine (animals and objects),” and, derivatively, “supplies, provisions.” P. Steinkeller (1982a) demonstrates the distinction between these two terms. More recently, M. Widell (2008) argues that during the Ur III period, igi ... kar2 designates specifically a delivery intended for the celebration of childbirth within the royal family and other elite families in the kingdom.

 

§3.2. Receipt of workdays
Museum No.: E53806
Date: AS 9
Provenience: Umma

 

§3.2.1

obv. 1.   5(u) 1(diš) 1/2 guruš u4 1-˹še3˺ 51 1/2 work-days, male workers,
  2.   e2-šitim-gub-ba stationed at Ešitimgubba
  3.   e2-šu-tum-ka gub-ba of a storehouse,
  4.   ugula ARAD2 foreman: ARAD;
rev. 1.   kišib3 lu2-dha-ia3 sealed receipt of Lu-Haya.
  2.   mu en ga-eški ba-hun Year: “The en-priestess in Ga’eš was installed.”
seal 1.   lu2-dha-ia3 Lu-Haya,
  2.   dub-sar scribe,
  3.   dumu ur-e11-e šuš3 son of Ur-e’e, the chief livestock manager.

 

§3.2.2. This text records that Lu-Haya took some workers led by ARAD to perform unspecified tasks related to a storehouse. It is closely parallel to another Umma text BPOA 1, 1103 (SS 2).
Obv. 1: Literally, “51 1/2 male workers for one day.” Our idiomatic translation follows R. K. Englund (1988: 126 n. 6). In calculating the amount of labor, Ur III documents adopt the following formula: number of workers times period recorded (Englund 1988: 126). Such a formula may, as our text here exemplifies, result in numbers with fractions for the workers counted.
Obv. 2-3: E. Flückiger-Hawker (1999: 313) suggests the meaning of “storehouse” for e2-šutum. The exact referent of e2-šitimgubba remains unclear. It seems to be part of a larger building, be it a storehouse as in our text and BPOA 1, 1103 (SS 2), the Emaš as in AAICAB 1/1, Ashm. 1924-665 (AS 6) rev. iii 1, or the temple of Šara as in CST 555 (SS 6/xii).
Rev. 1: This Lu-Haya was a member of the gubernatorial family in Umma. Although he never assumed the title šuš3, he probably acted as the de facto chief livetock manager in the district of Apisal, a position held by his father Ur-e’e. In addition, Lu-Haya functioned as a senior agricultural official and conducted transactions with merchants (Dahl 2007: 97-103). The title šuš3 is also attested in no. 4.21 rev. 5', a text from Drehem.

 

§3.3. Receipt of workdays
Museum No.: E59415
Date: SS 2
Provenience: Umma

 

§3.3.1.

obv. 1.   1(u) 6(diš) guruš u4 3(diš)-še3 48 workdays, male workers,
  2.   HI-a-bar-ra-ka ˹u2gug4˺ zex(SIG7)-a u3 a-e
gu7-a ki-gam-ma-ka-še3 ga6-ga2
in HIabaraka, cutting rushes and carrying (them)
to Kigamaka (the field) destroyed by water;
  3.   [ugula ...]-la [under the foreman] ...;
rev. 1.   [kišib3] ˹ur˺-dšara2 sealed receipt of Ur-Šara.
  2.   mu ma2 den-ki ba-ab-du8 Year: “The boat of Enki was caulked.”
seal 1.   ur-dšara2 Ur-Šara,
  2.   dub-sar scribe,
  3.   dumu šeš-kal-la son of Šeškala.

 

§3.3.2. This text details the workdays received by the scribe Ur-Šara. They were provided by workers under a foreman whose name is broken. The text finds close parallels in two other Umma texts dated to the same year, Princeton 1, 390, and Syracuse 274, which are discussed in Wilcke 1999: 319.
Obv. 1: For the labor terminology, see comment on obv. 1 of no. 3.2.
Obv. 2: The expression hi-a-bar-ra-ka appears associated with a threshing floor (ki-su7) in three Umma texts: BPOA 6, 88 (AS 5/iii) rev. 8; Nik 2, 154 (SS 6) obv. 2-3; Nik 2, 231 (SS 6) rev. 2. Therefore, it is likely to be a toponym. A truncated form of writing, hi-a-bar-ra, is also attested, for example, in Princeton 1, 390, where it carries the ablative suffix -ta at the end. The restoration of the plant is based on Princeton 1, 390, and Syracuse 274, mentioned above. Regarding the sign gug4 = KWU127.LAGAB representing a plant, M. Civil (1987: 49-50) lists five attested readings, each of which corresponds to a different plant. During the Ur III period, the plant behind this sign grew in forests, fields, and orchards, and could be used in the production of ropes, sieves, and baskets (Molina & Such-Gutiérrez 2004: 15).
Obv. 3: The expression a-e gu7-a literally means “(what) water has devoured," and often describes canals, fields, and dikes damaged by flooding water (Wilcke 1999: 316-320).

 

§3.4. Earthwork related to an irrigation dike
Museum No.: E15550
Date: IS 2
Provenience: Umma

 

§3.4.1.

obv. 1.   e a-ša3 la2-tur-ta A dike from the field Latur:
  2.   1(diš) 1/2(diš) ninda gid2 1 sar-ta sahar-bi 1(diš) 1/2(diš) sar (one part) 1 1/2 ninda long at one (volume) sar per (ninda), its earthwork 1 1/2 sar;
  3.   6(diš) ninda gid2 nu-tuku (one part) 6 ninda long without (work to be done);
  4.   3(diš) ninda gid2 2/3(diš) ˹sar˺-ta (one part) 3 ninda long at 2/3 sar per (ninda), its earthwork indeed 2 sar;
  5.   sahar-bi 2(diš) sar-am3 its earthwork indeed 2 sar;
  6.   2(u) ninda gid2 1/2(diš) sar-˹ta˺ (one part) 20 ninda long at 1/2 sar per (ninda),
  7.   sahar-bi 1(u) sar its earthwork 10 sar;
  8.   1(u) ninda gid2 1(diš) sar-ta (one part) 10 ninda long at 1 sar per (ninda),
  9.   sahar-bi 1(u) sar its earthwork 10 sar;
  10.   1(geš2) 3(u) 7(diš) ninda gid2 1/2(diš) sar-ta (one part) 97 ninda long at 1/2 sar per (ninda),
  11.   sahar-bi 4(u) 8(diš) 1/2(diš) sar its earthwork 48 1/2 sar;
  12.   3(diš) ninda gid2 1(diš) ˹sar˺-ta (one part) 3 ninda long at 1 sar per (ninda),
  13.   sahar-bi 3(diš) sar its earthwork 3 sar;
  14.   2(u) ninda gid2 1/3(diš) sar-ta (one part) 20 ninda long at 1/3 sar per (ninda),
  15.   sahar-bi 6(diš) 2/3(diš) sar its earthwork 6 2/3 sar;
  16.   1(u) ˹5(diš)˺ ninda gid2 1/2(diš) sar-ta (one part) 15 ninda long at 1/2 sar per (ninda),
  17.   sahar-bi 7(diš) 1/2(diš) ˹sar˺ its earthwork 7 1/2 sar;
  18.   [6(diš)] ˹ninda gid2˺ 1(diš) sar-[ta] (one part) 6 ninda long at 1 sar per (ninda),
  19.   [sahar-bi] ˹6(diš) sar˺ its earthwork 6 sar;
rev. 1.   1(u) 6(diš) ˹ninda gid2˺ 1/2(diš) ˹sar˺-ta (one part) 16 ninda long at 1/2 sar per (ninda),
  2.   sahar-<bi 8(diš) sar> its earthwork <8 sar>;
  3.   1(u) 4(diš) ninda 1/3(diš) sar-ta (one part) 14 ninda long at 1/3 sar per (ninda),
  4.   sahar-bi 4(diš) 2/3(diš) sar its earthwork 4 2/3 sar;
    blank space  
  5.   šu+nigin2 1(geš2) 3(u) 9(diš)+˹5/6(diš)˺ total: 99 5/6 sar earthwork;
      sar sahar
      blank space
  6.   ˹kin˺ e ra-a work (related to) “striking” the dike,
  7.   e sa-dur2-ra <a-ša3> igi e2-mah the dike at the end of the field facing Emah.
  8.   mu en dinanna unuki maš2-e i3-pa3 Year: “The en-priest of Inanna in Uruk was chosen”
        by means of a goat.”
left edge 1.   4(u) 8(diš) 3(u) 48.30 ?

 

§3.4.2. This text calculates the volume of earthwork related to the construction or maintenance of a dike. Close parallels to it include CMAA 015-C0017 (SS 4; see Englund 2002: §15) and YOS 4, 209 (SS 7; see Civil 1994: 126-127) . For studying the irrigation system in Mesopotamia, BSA 4-5 remain the basic reference works.
Obv. 1: The toponym a-ša3 la2-tur appears well documented in texts from Umma. It refers to a field located in Da-Umma (Maekawa 1987: 35), the largest region of the Umma province.
Rev. 5: The total is calculated without counting the restored number in rev. 2.
Rev. 6: The meaning of this line is ambiguous. It appears related to earthwork in all other Umma texts (MVN 14, 222 [SS 6]; MVN 16, 912 [SS 6] rev. ii 1 and 961 [SS 6] rev. 3; TCNU 666 = Torino 2, 666 [no date]; CMAA 015-C0017 [SS 4] rev. ii 3) except in MVN 18, 633 (no date), a tag of a tablet basket. Following H. Waetzoldt (1990: 3), Archi, Pomponio & Bergamini (1995: 184-185) restore an identical line in Torino 2, 666 rev. ii' 3 as kin-e-<sa-KU>-ra-a. Such a restoration does not seem likely for our text here, because the phrase e-sa- KU(read dur2)-ra appears immediately in the next line. Englund (2002: §15d) understands kin e ra-a as a description of the excavation of canals.
Rev. 7: The addition of a-ša3 is based on two parallels dated to SS 1, SACT 2, 23 obv. 3 and UTI 3, 1795 rev. 3. The translation of e sa-dur2-ra follows Civil (1994: 125-129, with previous literature), who argues for this meaning instead of the proposal of A. L. Oppenheim (1948: 40) “some work done on ditches (e) with a certain type of baskets or reed bundles (sa)”.
Left edge: Our transliteration is based on understanding the number as noted in the so-called “system s” (combination of a sexagesimal structure and an additive principle). If the number is noted in sexagesimal place value system, its transliteration would be 48.30 and the meaning either “48 1/2” or “48×60 + 30,” presumably referring to the length of the canal in this text. Proust (2009) has studied the different notation systems attested in the metrological lists and tables from Old Babylonian Nippur. Ambiguous numbers similar to this one appear on several other Ur III administrative documents from Umma, such as YNER 8, 5 (AS 5) at the end, and Nik 2, 402 (AS 4) at the end of the obverse. A systematic study is necessary to determine which notation system underlies such numbers.

 

§3.5. Receipt of barley
Museum No.: E34352
Date: SH 40/ix
Provenience: Umma

 

§3.5.1.

obv. 1.   1(u) 5(aš) še gur 15 gur of barley,
  2.   kišib3 ba-a-a šabra sealed receipt of Baya, the majordomo;
  3.   2(u) še gur 20 gur of barley,
  4.   kišib3 dšul-gi-a-ti sealed receipt of Šulgi-ati,
  5.   kišib3 dabx(LAGAB×GU4)-ba sealed receipts passed
rev. 1.   ki ARAD2-ta from ARAD;
  2.   ˹kišib3 lu2-giri17-zal˺ sealed receipt of Lu-girizal.
  3.   iti ˹d˺li9-si4 Month: “Lisi.”
  4.   ˹mu us2-sa e2 PU3.ŠA˺-da-gan ba-du3 Year after: “Puzriš-Dagan was built.”
seal 1.   ur-dli9-si4 Ur-Lisi
  2.   ensi2 ummaki governor of Umma.
  3.   lu2-giri17-zal [Lu-girizal]
  4.   [...] ...

 

§3.5.2. This is a summary tablet (Sammeltafel) sealed by Lu-girizal. It collects information from tablets sealed by two other people, Baya and Šulgi-ati. Lu-girizal received these tablets from ARAD.
Obv. 4: This seems the first attestation of the name Šulgi-ati, as our search in BDTNS and CDLI did not find it in any other text. The digital images of the tablet verify our reading.
Rev. 1: Judging from the considerable volume of barley he handled, this ARAD was likely to be the chief granary officer in Umma who bore the same name. This officer was a brother of three governors in Umma, Ur-Lisi, Akalla, and Dadaga, and functioned primarily as a supplier of barley, most of which was distributed as “rations” for workers or fodder for domestic animals (Dahl 2007: 115-121). He is also attested in no. 3.11 rev. 3.

 

§3.6. Receipt of barley as “ration”
Museum No.: E29123
Date: SH 46/x
Provenience: Umma

 

§3.6.1.

obv. 1.   2(barig) še-ba za3-mu 2 barig (120 liters) of barley as “ration” at New Year,
  2.   e2-kikken-ta from the milling house,
  3.   ad-da-mu <nu>-geš˹kiri6˺ Addamu, the gardener,
  4.   šu ba-ti received
  5.   ki lugal-ra-ni at the place of Lugal-rani.
rev. 1.   iti ezem-dšul-gi Month: “Festival of Šulgi.”
  2.   mu ki-maški [ba]-hul Year: “Kimaš was destroyed.”

 

§3.6.2. This text records the receipt, by a gardener named Addamu, of 2 barig (120 liters) of barley as New Year’s “rations.” Inside the small plastic bag holding the tablet is a note written in pencil, which reads: “From Drehem; temple record; date about 2200 BC; guaranteed genuine.” The note is signed by Edgar J. Banks. A similar note accompanies another tablet E29124 (no. 5.7). Based on its parallelism with another Umma text Nisaba 9, 272 (AS 1/xii), the tablet here, however, comes from Umma instead of Drehem. In that text, the same Addamu received ninety liters of barley for the same reason. Text no. 3.7, likewise a document from Umma, also records a rate of ninety liters of barley per person.
Obv. 1: Barley, wool, and oil were the three types of “rations” workers regularly received during the Ur III period. Among them, barley was distributed on a monthly basis and wool annually, but the frequency of the oil “rations” remains unclear (Gelb 1965). A male worker usually received 1 barig (sixty liters) of barley per month. Steinkeller (2004: 96) suggests that for the Ur III period, we should understand še-ba as barley “salary” instead of barley “ration,” because the amount of barley distributed as še-ba far exceeded the dietary requirements of the recipients.
Obv. 5: One might wonder whether or not ki lugal-rani represents an abbreviated form of ki lugal-ra-ni-ta. As L. Allred (2006: 112) points out, in some cases the expression ki PN may mean “(at the) place of PN, under the authority of PN” rather than “from PN,” which generally corresponds to ki PN-ta.

 

§3.7. Receipt of barley as “ration”
Museum No.: E59413
Date: AS 2/vii
Provenience: Umma

 

§3.7.1.

obv. 1.   1(barig) 3(ban2) še-ba gur lugal 1 barig 3 ban2 of barley, royal (measure), as “ration” for
  2.   ur-nigargar Ur-nigar,
  3.   1(barig) 3(ban2) he2-eb-bu-e 1 barig 3 ban2 for Hebu’e,
  4.   1(barig) 3(ban2) dšara2-kam 1 barig 3 ban2 for Šarakam,
  5.   1(barig) 3(ban2) šu-eš18-dar 1 barig 3 ban2 for Šu-ešdar,
  6.   [1(barig)] ˹3(ban2)˺ lu2-giri17-zal 1 barig 3 ban2 for Lu-girizal,
  7.   [1(barig)] ˹3(ban2)˺ e2-ki 1 barig 3 ban2 for Eki,
  8.   [1(barig) 3(ban2) ...] x 1 barig 3 ban2 for ...,
  9.   [1(barig) 3(ban2)] ša3-gu2-bi 1 barig 3 ban2 for Šagubi,
  10.   1(barig) 3(ban2) dingir-an-dul3 1 barig 3 ban2 for Dingir-andul,
  11.   1(barig) 3(ban2) ur-dšul-pa-e3 1 barig 3 ban2 for Ur-Šulpa’e,
rev. 1.   1(barig) 3(ban2) a-kal-la 1 barig 3 ban2 for Akala,
  2.   1(barig) 3(ban2) lu2-zi-mu 1 barig 3 ban2 for Luzimu,
  3.   1(barig) 3(ban2) a-kal-la 1 barig 3 ban2 for Akala.
  blank space
  4.   šu+nigin2 3(aš) 4(barig) 3(ban2) še gur Total: 3 gur 4 barig 3 ban2 of barley
  5.   še-ba za3-mu barley “rations” at New Year;
  6.   ugula lu2-dutu the foreman: Lu-Utu,
  7.   a-ša3 ka-ma-ri2ki-ta from the field Kamari;
  8.   ša3 še ur5-ra-ka part of the barley “loan”;
  9.   kišib3 e2-ki sealed receipt of Eki.
  10.   ˹iti˺ min-eš3 Month: “min-eš3.”
  11.   mu damar-dsuen ur- <bi2>-lumki mu-hul Year: “Amar-Sin destroyed Urbilum.”

 

§3.7.2. This text lists barley advanced to thirteen people as their “ration,” with ninety liters for each (cf. 120 liters in no. 3.6). They were led by the foreman Lu-Utu and probably worked in the field called Kamari.
Obv. 1: For details about the Ur III ration system, see comment on obv. 1 of no. 3.6.
Obv. 3: The name he2-eb-bu-e is very rare and appears only in one other Umma text, SA 76 (SS 6/xi/25).
Rev. 2: The name lu2-zi-mu is also rare and appears only in one other Umma text, Syracuse 266 (SH 44/ix) rev. 5.
Rev. 7: The field Kamari was located in the district of Da-Umma (Ouyang 2010: 325).
Rev. 8: According to Steinkeller 2002a: 116-117, še ur5-ra appears attested in hundreds of administrative documents from the provinces of Umma and Girsu and refers to advances disguised as loans made by local authorities to their dependents. Such advances were usually interest-free.

 

§3.8. Receipt of flour
Museum No.: E59402
Date: SS 2/ii/9
Provenience: Umma

 

§3.8.1.

obv. 1.   5(ban2) 5(diš) 1/2(diš) sila3 dabin 5 ban2 5 1/2 sila3 of barley flour
  2.   u4 7(diš)-kam on the 7th day (of the month);
  3.   5(ban2) 8(diš) sila3 ˹dabin˺ 5 ban2 8 sila3 of barley flour
  4.   u4 8(diš)-kam on the 8th day (of the month);
  5.   3(ban2) 8(diš) u4 1(u) la2 1(diš)-kam 3 ban2 8 sila3 on the 9th day (of the month);
rev. 1.   2(ban2) zi3 sagi 2 ban2 of flour of a cup-bearer;
  2.   ki lu2-dingir-ra-ta from Lu-dingira,
  3.   kišib3 ensi2-ka sealed receipt of the governor.
  4.   iti sig4-geši3-šub-˹ba-gar˺ Month: “Laying bricks in the mold.”
  5.   mu us2-sa dšu-dsuen lugal Year after: “Šu-Sin is king.”
seal 1.   dšu-dsuen Šu-Sin,
  2.   lugal kal-ga strong king,
  3.   lugal uri5ki-ma king of Ur,
  4.   lugal an-ub-da limmu2-ka king of four quarters;
  5.   a-a-kal-la Ayakala
  6.   ensi2 governor
  7.   ummaki of Umma,
  8.   ARAD2-zu your servant.

 

§3.8.2. This text records the modest amount of barley flour received by the governor for three consecutive days, plus twenty liters more from an anonymous cup-bearer. A close parallel is TCNU 481 (SS 2/ii/29), which dates to only twenty days later. The latter text lists twenty-five, twenty-nine, and thirty-six liters of flour received by the governor respectively on the 27th, 28th, and 29th day of the same month.

 

§3.9. Receipt of barley
Museum No.: E59416
Date: SS 2
Provenience: Umma

 

§3.9.1.

obv. 1.   la2-NI [su-ga] 1(barig) 2(diš) sila3 ˹dabin˺ Repaid arrears: 1 barig 2 sila3 of barley flour
  2.   ˹lugal?˺-ur2-˹ra-ni˺ of Lugal-urani,
  3.   [1(barig) 3(diš) sila3] ur-gešgigir dumu ˹e˺-a-˹si-lu˺ 1 barig 3 sila3 of Ur-gigir son of E’asilu,
  4.   3(diš) sila3 ˹ur-dištaran˺ 3 sila3 of Ur-Ištaran,
  5.   3(diš) sila3 lugal-a2-zi-da dumu dab-u2-si? 3 sila3 of Lugal-azida son of Abu-si?,
  6.   3(diš) 1/2(diš) sila3 lu2-d˹šara2 dumu˺ a-da-lal3 3 1/2 sila3 of Lu-Šara son of Adalal.
rev. 1.   šu+nigin2 2(barig) 1(ban2) 4(diš) 1/2(diš) sila3 zi3 Total: 2 barig 1 ban2 4 1/2 sila3 of flour,
  2.   gu2-na ˹gur?˺ sila-a gal2 taxes “being on the street”;
  (erased line)
  3.   ˹ki˺ i3-kal-la-ta from Ikala;
  4.   ˹kišib3˺ lugal-ur2-ra-ni sealed receipt of Lugal-urani.
  5.   mu ma2 den-ki ˹ba-ab˺-du8 seal illegible Year: “The boat of Enki was caulked.”

 

§3.9.2. This text records the arrears of flour totalling 134 1/2 liters paid off by five individuals.
Obv. 1: Further information on la2-NI available in the comment on no. 3.11 obv. 2.
Obv. 4: There seems to be two DINGIR signs, one on the top of the other, after the UR sign. The reason is not clear to us.
Rev. 2: The term gu2-na refers generally to taxes during the Ur III period (Sharlach 2004: 162-163). A special type of it is called gun2 ma-da, “taxes of the provinces,” which was paid annually by the military personnel stationed in the peripheral area of the Ur III kingdom and consisted of sheep and cattle often at the ratio of ten to one (Steinkeller 1987, esp. 30-41). The phrase sila-a gal2 indicates that the flour repaid by the people had yet to be actually delivered to the authorities. A discussion about sila appears in the comment on obv. 6 of no. 4.2.

 

§3.10. Delivery of copper sickles into a warehouse
Museum No.: E59431
Date: SH 47
Provenience: Umma

 

§3.10.1.

obv. 1.   1(u) 2(diš) 1/3(diš) ma-na uruda 12 1/3 minas of copper,
  2.   ki-la2 urudagur10 sumun 1(geš2) 5(u) 4(diš)-kam weight of 114 old sickles,
  3.   ki ku-li-ta from Kuli;
  4.   1/2(diš) ma-na uruda 1/2 mina of copper,
  5.   ki-la2 urudagur10 sumun 4(diš)-kam weight of 4 old sickles,
  6.   ki lu2-gi-na-ta from Lugina;
  7.   3(diš) ma-na uruda 3 minas of copper,
  8.   ki-la2 urudagur10 sumun 2(u)-kam weight of 20 old sickles,
rev. 1.   [ki ...]-lu5-ta from ...;
  2.   [...] gin2 uruda ... shekels of copper,
  3.   [ki-la2 urudagur10] ˹sumun˺ 1(u) 4(diš)-kam weight of 14 old sickles,
  4.   ˹ki˺ [...-d]idim-ta from ...;
  5.   e2-kišib3-ba-še3 to the warehouse
  6.   ba-an-ku4 (the copper) was brought.
  blank space
  7.   mu us2-sa ki-maški ba-hul Year after: “Kimaš was destroyed.”

 

§3.10.2. This text lists 152 sickles delivered into a warehouse by four people. Its Umma provenience is based on its parallelism with another Umma text NYPL 202 (SH 44/i), which records that Kuli received seventy copper sickles from a warehouse.

 

§3.11. Receipt of copper objects
Museum No.: E15552
Date: AS 3/x
Provenience: Umma

 

§3.11.1.

obv. 1.   1(geš2) 1(u) 1(diš) uluruda 71 copper rosettes,
  2.   la2-NI 1(u) 9(diš) uluruda arrears (being) 19 copper rosettes;
  3.   2(geš2) 3(diš) kakuruda 123 copper pegs,
  4.   kuša2-la2 (for) the ala-drum
  5.   ur-dnamma of Ur-Namma,
  6.   kin tuge-ba a job on its textile cover,
  7.   kuš se-ge4-de3 (on which) leather is to be applied (plus the copper decoration);
rev. 1.   a-kal-la ašgab Akala, the leather worker,
  2.   šu ba-ti received
  3.   giri3 ARAD2 ka-guru7 via ARAD, the chief granary officer.
  4.   iti ezem-dšul-gi Month: “Festival of Šulgi.”
  5.   mu ku3 gu-za den-lil2-la2 ba-dim2 Year: “The silver throne of Enlil was made.”

 

§3.11.2. This text notes the receipt of copper items by Akala, who was a well-known leather worker in Umma (Neumann 1987: 128-134).
Obv. 1: The term ul often appears associated with doors and refers to a decorative motif that resembles both a star and a flower in Mesopotamian tradition (Steinkeller 2002b).
Obv. 2: Briefly speaking, la2-NI in Ur III documents refers to unfilled obligation toward the government. Here it consists of nineteen copper rosettes not delivered yet. Englund (1990: 27 n. 94) discusses the two readings of this term, la2-NI versus la2-ux, in favor of the former. It would appear from its use in the CDLI transliterations that he has now opted for the reading la2-ia3, evidently based on such parallel nominalized forms as zi-ga, although the justification for this view is to the best of our knowledge not discussed in print. He (ibid., 27-51) further elaborates the meaning of la2-NI in view of related terms such as diri and nig2-ka9 aka. They often appear attested together in the so-called balanced accounts from the Ur III period. W. Sallaberger (1995: 445) suggests that, grammatically, we analyze la2-NI as a fixed imperative.
Obv. 6: The same line appears in another Umma text MVN 15, 78 (SS 3/iii) obv. 4.
Obv. 7: Widell (2002, esp. 396-397) understands se-ge4 as a phonetic variant of the regular verb se3.g, which means “to put, to place.”
Rev. 3: The same ARAD appears in no. 3.5 rev. 1.

 

§3.12. Tag of a basket for storing tablets
Museum No.: E59435
Date: AS 5
Provenience: Umma

 

§3.12.1.

obv. 1.   pisan-dub-ba A tablet basket:
  2.   dub la2-<NI> zi-ga ša3-tam-ne tablets of arrears (and) withdrawals of šatam-administrators,
  3.   u3 dub la2-<NI> dur-x and tablets of arrears ...,
  4.   pisan-bi-še3 to their basket
  5.   hal-ha are allocated,
rev. 1.   i3-[gal2] are within.
  2.   mu ˹en˺-[unu6-gal dinanna] unuki [ba-hun] Year: “Enunugal of Inanna in Uruk was installed.”

 

§3.12.2. This text is a basket tag and has two close parallels, CST 528 (IS 1) and UTI 6, 3748 (no date), both of which are attributed to Umma. The Umma provenience of this tablet is deduced from the origin of its parallels.
Obv. 2-3: Restoration of -NI based on the context.

 

§3.13. Poorly preserved letter?
Museum No.: E15551
Date: No date
Provenience: Umma

 

§3.13.1.

obv. 1.   ˹lu2˺-bala-a (To) Lu-balaya:
  2.   nu-ur2-diškur <<ka>> Nur-Iškur
  3.   šu i3-ib2-ba has been released.
rev.     uninscribed
seal 1.   [a]-kal-˹la˺ Akala,
  2.   dub-sar scribe,
  3.   dumu ur-nigargar šuš3 son of Ur-nigar the chief livestock administrator.

 

§3.13.2. The provenience of this tablet is based on the seal inscription. The text probably represents a letter because of obv. 3, which appears elsewhere only in a letter from Girsu (Michalowski 1993: 99, no. 186).
Obv. 1: This name is attested elsewhere only in AnOr 1, 85 (AS 4) obv. vi 14, a tablet from Umma.
Obv. 2: Another possible reading is nu-ur2-dingir ni2-zuh, “Nur-dingir, the thief.” But as a personal name, Nur-dingir is only attested once on a Girsu tablet TCTI 2, 2814 (date broken) obv. 11. Moreover, the phrase for thief is usually written as lu2-ni2-zuh; the writting of ni2-zuh appears only in a broken text, ZA 53, 69 10 (date broken). On the other hand, Nur-Iškur has dozens of attestations in the Umma corpus.
Seal: This Akala was the one who succeeded his brother as governor in Umma in AS 8 and stayed in office until SS 7 (Dahl 2007: 63-67).

 

§3.14. Receipt? of livestock
Museum No.: E29122
Date: No date
Provenience: Umma

 

§3.14.1.

obv. 1.   3(diš) udu 3 sheep,
  2.   2(diš) maš2 2 goats,
  3.   lu2-banda3 da dub-sar rev. uninscribed (received ? by) Lu-banda, the scribe.

 

§3.14.2. This text may be a receipt of domestic animals.
Provenience: This tablet most probably comes from Umma because the scribe named Lu-banda appears attested only in the text proper of two Umma records: BM 105330 (Š 43) obv. vi 15' and SNAT 340 (AS 3) rev. 3.

 

§3.15. List of arrears due
Museum No.: E59403
Date: No date
Provenience: Umma

 

§3.15.1.

obv. 1.   1(diš) la2-NI dlugal-banda3da 1 as arrears of Lugal-banda,
  2.   2(diš) ha-da 2 of Hada,
  3.   2(diš) ur-gal-˹še3?˺ 2 of Ur-galše,
  4.   1(diš) du10-ga 1 of Duga,
  5.   1(diš) ur-gu2-de3-na rev. uninscribed 1 of Ur-gudena.
rev.     uninscribed  

 

§3.15.2. This text lists arrears due from five individuals, but does not mention the product concerned. Judged from the counting unit, domestic animals were likely to be meant here.
Provenience: The provenience of this tablet is based on the name ur-gu2-de3-na, which, based on our search in BDTNS and CDLI, appears attested with certainty only in Umma.
Obv. 1: Further information on la2-NI available in the comment on no. 3.11 obv. 2.
Obv. 3: The name Ur-galše appears once in the Umma text Nisaba 6, 10 (AS 6/xii) obv. i 25.

 

§4. Ur III Documents from Drehem
§4.0. The 64 PEM Drehem documents are divided into five categories: receipts, internal transfers, withdrawals, receipts of slaughtered livestock, and others.

 

§4.0.1. Nine texts (4.1-9) document livestock received by the Drehem authorities from outside sources. They often feature two phrases, mu-kux(DU), “delivery,” or šu ba-ti, “received.”

 

§4.0.2. Eighteen (4.10-27) internal transfers all carry the catch-phrase i3-dab5. According to Sallaberger 1995: 444, the difference between šu . . . ti and dab5 in the Drehem archive consists not so much in that the former usually takes an inanimate object, while the latter an animate object. Rather, šu ... ti means “to receive” as the final closing of a transaction, but dab5 “to take over” within an administrative system.

The transfers documented here often took place within the Central Bureau in Drehem (nos. 4.11, 4.20 and 4.23), or were made from (no. 4.26) or to this bureau (nos. 4.15-16, 4.21 and 4.24). The Central Bureau “recorded the receipt of animals from deliveries made by various individuals, on one hand, and simultaneously documented withdrawals from the total amount of livestock thus accumulated, on the other. Withdrawals of animals met the demands of temples, kitchens, and the various branches of the royal household, to name only a few” (Hilgert 1998: 13). See also ibid., 14-15; Hilgert & Reichel 2003: 14-16, 53-57. Well-known officials of this bureau included Abba-saga, Duga, Inta’e’a, and Nasa, all of whom are attested here. More transactions of them are available in Hilgert and Reichel 2003: 157-298.

In addition, transfers were made between the Central Bureau and the Fattening House (nagabtum) in Drehem (nos. 4.13 and 4.22) as well as to the Fattening House from other sources (nos. 4.17-19). The Fattening House was responsible for providing livestock for cultic events, religious celebrations, and foreign envoys (Hilgert & Reichel 2003: 43-47). Its major officials included Ahu-wer and Lu-dingira (two branch managers) as well as Šulgi-ayamu, a top administrator during the reign of King Amar-Sin. More transactions of Šulgi-ayamu are available ibid., 144-151.

Less frequently, transfers took place between the Central Bureau and an administrator called Nalu (nos. 4.10, 4.12 and 4.14). Elsewhere he expended livestock to individuals, sometimes for cultic purposes or the benefit of the Kitchen (Hilgert & Reichel 2003: 64-65, 299-313; Hilgert 1998: 15-16).

 

§4.0.3. Twenty texts (4.28-47) contain the hallmark ba-zi/zi-ga, “withdrawal, expenditure.” All the records concern sheep and cattle except no. 4.36, which mentions two bear cubs withdrawn for E’uzga. The withdrawals served primarily as offerings for deities (nos. 4.28-29, 4.32, 4.34, 4.38, 4.40-41, 4.43-44 and 4.47). Occasionally, foreign emissaries (nos. 4.35 and 4.38) and the Kitchen (e2-muhaldim; nos. 4.28, 4.33 and 4.45) emerged as beneficiaries of the withdrawals. L. Allred (2006) studies e2-muhaldim as it appears in different corpora of the Ur III period. He concludes that in Drehem, animals withdrawn for the Kitchen originated largely as tax payments from the military stationed in the east and north of the Ur III kingdom; the Kitchen processed the animals mainly to provide for the officials and laborers who worked in Drehem temporarily (Allred 2006: 79-80).

Withdrawals were often made from the Central Bureau (nos. 4.31, 4.33, 4.36-37, 4.39, 4.42 and 4.44), the Fattening House (nos. 4.34-35), and the official Nalu (nos. 4.29, 4.32, 4.40 and 4.46). Two withdrawals were linked respectively to the archive of Queen Šulgi-simti (no. 4.30) and the so-called Tummal Bureau (no. 4.38). In the latter En-dingirmu was a major expending official (Hilgert & Reichel 2003: 65).

 

§4.0.4. Fifteen texts (4.48-62) always describe the livestock concerned as ba-ug7/uš2, “slaughtered.” The recipient was either Ur-nigar (nos. 4.49-57) or Šulgi-irimu (nos. 4.48 and 4.58-62). Other receipts of Ur-nigar are listed in Hilgert 1998: 431-432; Hilgert & Reichel 2003: 535. The transactions of Ur-nigar span from the late years of the reign of King Šulgi to the beginning of that of King Amar-Sin. Šulgi-irimu is a well attested recipient of slaughtered livestock in the Drehem archive (e.g., texts listed in Hilgert and Reichel 2003: 533-535). Some of the livestock received by Urnigar and Šulgi-irimu came from the Fattening House (nos. 4.54, 4.56 and 4.58) or the official Nalu (nos. 4.49, 4.51-53, 4.55, 4.59 and 4.61). Both the Fattening House and Nalu were active in making transfers and withdrawals of livestock.

 

§4.0.5. Of the remaining two texts from Drehem, no. 4.63 documents a withdrawal of two slaughtered oxen for undisclosed purpose; no. 4.64 may be a broken receipt of a bala-delivery.

 

§4.1. Receipt of livestock
Museum No.: E59457
Date: SH 43/iv/20
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.1.1.

obv. 1.   2(diš) [...] 2 ...,
  2.   1(diš) ˹amar˺ [...] 1 calf ...,
  3.   en-˹dingir˺-[mu] of En-dingirmu;
  4.   1(diš) šeg9-[bar ...] 1 deer ...,
  5.   šu-eš18-[dar] of Šu-ešdar;
rev. 1.   1(diš) sila4 1 lamb,
  2.   lugal-nir-gal2 of Lugal-nirgal;
    blank space  
  3.   mu-kux(DU) (as) delivery.
  4.   iti ki-siki-dnin-a-˹zu˺ Month: “Wool-workers of Ninazu.”
  5.   mu en d˹nanna˺ maš-e i3-˹pa3˺ Year: “The en-priestess of Nanna was chosen by means of extispicy.”
left edge 1.   u4 2(u)-kam The 20th day (of the month).

 

§4.1.2. This text lists the delivery of animals from three individuals named En-dingirmu, Šu-ešdar, and Lugal-nirgal. En-dingirmu was a well attested expending official in the Tummal Bureau of Drehem (Hilgert & Reichel 2003: 65).
Obv. 4: For identification of šeg9-bar as deer, see Steinkeller 1995: 50.

 

§4.2. Receipt of livestock
Museum No.: E53742
Date: SH 43/v
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.2.1.

obv. 1.   4(u) 2(diš) ab2 42 cows,
  2.   6(geš2) 1(u) 2(diš) u8 372 ewes,
  3.   2(u) 5(diš) udu 25 sheep,
  4.   1(geš2) 5(u) 1(diš) ud5 111 female goats,
  5.   2(u) 5(diš) maš-da3 25 gazelles,
  6.   sila-ta e3-e3-de3 “to get out of the street”;
rev. 1.   kišib3 lu2-didli-ne sealed receipts of various people;
  2.   ur-nigargar Ur-nigar
  3.   šu ba-ti received.
      blank space
  4.   iti ezem-dnin-a-zu Month: “Festival of Ninazu.”
  5.   mu en dnanna maš-e i3-pa3 Year: “The en-priestess of Nanna was chosen by means of extispicy.”

 

§4.2.2. This text records the receipt of a large number of sheep and goats by Ur-nigar, who collected outstanding dues from various people. It corresponds to rev. v 19-26 in the much longer text Princeton 2, 1 (SH 43/v). Most frequently, Ur-nigar appears attested as a recipient of slaughtered livestock (§4.0.4).
Obv. 6: According to Steinkeller (1985a) and Sigrist (1992: 112-113), sila, literally “street,” often appears attested as an accounting term in Drehem texts and refers to domestic animals not on hand at the moment but expected to be delivered in the immediate future. Therefore, the phrase sila-ta e3-e3-de3 may describe the situation in which the outstanding dues have been collected and would be credited against the people owing the dues.

 

§4.3. Receipt of livestock
Museum No.: E59179
Date: SH 43/vi/23
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.3.1.

obv. 1.   1(diš) udu 1 sheep
  2.   ˹iti˺-ta u4 2(u) 1(diš) ba-ra-zal on day 21 of the month,
  3.   1(diš) udu 1 sheep
  4.   ˹iti-ta˺ u4 2(u) 2(diš) ba-˹ra˺-[zal] on day 22 of the month,
  5.   2(diš) maš2-gal niga 2 barley-fed bucks,
  6.   2(diš) udu 2 sheep,
rev. 1.   iti-ta u4 2(u) 3(diš) ba-ra-zal on day 23 of the month;
  2.   ki aš-ne2-u18-ta from Ašne’u
  3.   be-li2-a-ri2-ik Beli-arik received.
  4.   šu ba-ti
  5.   iti a2-ki-ti Month: “Akiti (Festival).”
  6.   mu en dnanna maš-e i3-pa3 Year: “The en-priestess of Nanna was chosen by means of extispicy.”

 

§4.3.2. This text records six sheep and goats from Ašne’u received by Beli-arik. Elsewhere Ašne’u appears in a small group of texts expending livestock in Tummal (Hilgert 1998: 12-13). There is, however, no clue in our text to link it to Tummal. The recipient Beli-arik appears in the same capacity in a Drehem text OIP 115, 296 (SH 43/v).
Rev. 1: According to Sallaberger 1993, vol. 1: 22, the formula iti-ta u2-n ba-ra/ta-zal, “n days having passed from the month,” is characteristic of the archive of Šulgi-simti, queen of King Šulgi, in Drehem, and appears only occasionally outside her archive. Our text here does not seem to be part of this archive, but text no. 4.30, where the same formula is attested, belongs to it.

 

§4.4. Receipt of livestock
Museum No.: E59444
Date: SH 43/x/23
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.4.1.

obv. 1.   ˹3˺(diš) udu ˹niga˺ 1(diš) sila4 3 barley-fed sheep, 1 lamb,
  2.   dlamma-mu of Lamma-mu;
  3.   2(diš) gu4 1(u) 6(diš) udu 2 oxen, 16 sheep,
  4.   3(diš) maš2-˹gal˺ 1(diš) maš2 3 bucks, 1 goat,
  5.   šar-ru-um-ba-ni nu-banda3 of Šarrum-bani the foreman;
  6.   1(diš) sila4 ensi2 gir2-su[ki] 1 lamb of the governor of Girsu;
rev. 1.   2(diš) sila4 ensi2 nibruki 2 lambs of the governor of Nippur;
    blank space  
  2.   mu-kux(DU) (as) delivery.
  3.   ˹iti˺ ezem-an-˹na˺ Month: “An Festival.”
  4.   mu en dnanna maš2-e i3-pa3 Year: “The en-priestess of Nanna was chosen by means of extispicy.”
left edge 1.   u4 2(u) 3(diš)-kam 23rd day (of the month).

 

§4.4.2. This text registers the sheep and cattle contributed by four individuals, including the governors of Girsu and Nippur.

 

§4.5. Receipt of livestock
Museum No.: E59447
Date: SH 44/v
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.5.1.

obv. 1.   4(diš) gu4 4 oxen,
  2.   3(diš) ab2 3 cows,
  3.   6(diš) ˹dusu2˺-nita2 6 male equids,
  4.   4(diš) ˹dusu2˺-munus 4 female equids,
  5.   šu-gi4 (all being) old,
  6.   ki šu-didim-ta from Šu-Idim,
rev. 1.   mu-kux(DU) (as) delivery.
  2.   ˹iti ezem-dnin-a-zu˺ Month: “Ninazu Festival.”
  3.   mu si-mu-ru-umki u3 lu-lu-buki a-ra2 1(u) la2 1(diš)-kam ba-hul Year: “Simurum and Lulubu were destroyed for the 9th time.”

 

§4.5.2. This text lists the livestock delivered by Šu-Idim, who appears in the same capacity in no. 4.21 rev. 7'. He is more often attested as a recipient of domestic animals in the Drehem archive (eg., OIP 121, 115, and texts listed in Hilgert 1998: 390).

 

§4.6. Receipt of wool
Museum No.: E53739
Date: AS 2/xii
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.6.1.

obv. 1.   5(u) 8(aš) gu2 2(u) 3(diš) 1/3(diš) ma-na siki sig17 58 talents (plus) 23 1/3 minas of yellowish wool
  2.   ki na-ra-am-i3-li2-ta from Naram-ili
  3.   mu-kux(DU) (as) delivery
rev. 1.   dšul-gi-mi-šar Šulgi-mišar
  2.   šu ba-ti received.
  3.   iti še-sag11-ku5 Month: “Harvest.”
  4.   mu damar-dsuen lugal-e ur-bi2-lumki mu-hul Year: “King Amar-Sin destroyed Urbilum.”

 

§4.6.2. This text records the delivery of a considerable amount of wool.
Both the deliverer Naram-ili and the recipient Šulgi-mišar are well attested in Drehem texts. For a summary of the transactions involving Naram-ili, see Hilgert & Reichel 2003: 66-67.
Obv. 1: Waetzoldt (1972: 6) suggests the meaning “yellowish” for the sign GI when it appears associated with wool and connects wool of this color to the uli-gi sheep. Steinkeller (1995: 55-56) adopts the same meaning for the GI sign in this type of context, but reads it as sig17. Steinkeller (ibid., 54) also reads the name of the sheep differently as eme-girx, a variant of the term eme-gir15(ŠE3), “Sumerian.” Therefore, the sheep designated as eme-girx refers to a native breed in the land of Sumer.

 

§4.7. Receipt of livestock
Museum No.: E59427
Date: AS 3/i
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.7.1.

obv. 1.   2(diš) gu4 niga 6(diš) udu niga gu4-e us2-sa 2 barley-fed oxen 6 barley-fed sheep “following oxen,”
  2.   1(u) 1(diš) udu 1(diš) sila4 11 sheep, 1 lamb,
  3.   1(diš) maš2 2(diš) amar maš-da3 1 kid, 2 gazelle fawns,
  4.   ensi2 ummaki mu-˹kux(DU)˺ a2-ki-ti še-sag11-ku5-ka [...] of the governor in Umma, (as) delivery for the Akiti Festival in the (month) “Harvest” ...;
  5.   2(diš) maš2-gal 1(diš) sila4 2 bucks, 1 lamb,
  6.   nigargar-ki-du10 of Nigar-kidu
  7.   [n] udu niga 1(diš) sila4 ... barley-fed sheep, 1 lamb,
rev. 1.   ˹ensi2˺ a-[...] of governor ... .
  (several lines broken) ...
  1'.   [iti maš-da3]-gu7 Month: “Gazelle eating.”
  2'.   [mu] ˹us2˺-sa ur-˹bi2˺-lumki ba-hul Year after: “Urbilum was destroyed.”

 

§4.7.2. This text lists more than twenty head of sheep and cattle contributed by three individuals—the governor of Umma, an unidentified Nigar-kidu, and the governor of an unknown location—for the celebration of the akiti festival in Ur during the first month.
Obv. 1: The expression gu4-e us2-sa, as G. Selz (1993: 82) summarizes, means “whoever/whatever follows an ox,” and appears connected to both people and animals. Here it may denote the highest grade of sheep (i.e., the barley-fed ones), which were considered inferior only to oxen. The same phrase is attested in no. 4.47 obv. 6, 12, 16.

 

§4.8. Receipt of livestock
Museum No.: E59406
Date: AS 9/x
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.8.1.

obv. 1.   1(diš) maš2-gal giri3 ba-[...] 1 buck via ...,
  2.   1(diš) maš2 a-hu-wa-qar 1 goat of Ahu-waqar,
  3.   1(diš) udu inim-ma-ni-zi giri3 a-da-la2-a 1 sheep of Inimanizi via Adalaya,
  4.   2(diš) udu ki dutu ša3 ˹x-x˺ 2 sheep in the place of Utu in ...,
  5.   giri3 ur-tum-al via Ur-Tummal,
  6.   iti ezem-mah [...] in the month “Grand Festival” ...;
  7.   2(u) 7(diš) udu ˹ki na-ah-šum˺-[bala] 27 sheep in the place of Nahšumbala,
  8.   1 sila4 ša3 mu-kux(DU) [...] 1 lamb among the delivery ...,
  9.   giri3 nu-ur2-i3-li2 šuruppak[ki] via Nur-ili from Šuruppak,
  10.   iti ezem-an-na in the month “An Festival”;
  11.   1(diš) udu ˹giri3˺ inim-d˹x-x˺[...] 1 sheep via Inim- ...,
  12.   2(diš) udu giri3 ba-ir 2 sheep via Ba’ir,
  13.   iti ezem-me-˹ki˺-gal2 in the month “Mekigal Festival”
  14.   mu en-mah-gal in the year of “Enmahgal” (AS 4);
  15.   2(diš) udu ˹x-x˺-ni mu-˹x˺ 2 sheep of ...,
  16.   ˹giri3˺ a-da-lal3 iti ses-da-[gu7] mu en-˹unu6˺-gal via Adalal during the month “Eating piglets” in the Year: “Enunugal” (AS 5);
  17.   [n] 3(diš) ˹udu˺ [ki] ˹nu˺-ur2dsuen˺ 3+ sheep in the place of Nur-Sin,
  18.   1(diš) udu [...] iti šu-eš2-˹ša˺ 1 sheep ... during the month “Šueša,”
  19.   5(diš) ˹maš2˺ i-zi-[...] 5 goats ...,
  20.   iti ezem-mah mu gu-za in the month “Grand Festival” of the year: “Throne” (AS 3);
rev. 1.   1(diš) udu 1(diš) maš2 giri3 ARAD2 1 sheep (and) 1 goat via ARAD,
  2.   ˹iti ezem˺-me-ki-<gal2> mu ˹ur-bi2-lum˺[ki] in the month “Mekigal Festival” of the year: “Urbilum” (AS 2);
  3.   6 (diš) udu ba-˹ni˺ ezem-an-na 6 sheep of Bani in the month “An Festival”;
  blank space
  4.   3(diš) maš2 igi ˹gun3? iti x-x mu en-mah-gal˺ 3 ... goats in the month “...” of the year: “Enmahgal” (AS 4);
  5.   1(diš) udu la2-NI zi-qur2-˹i3-li2˺ 1 sheep as arrears of Ziqur-ili,
  6.   1(diš) maš2 ˹giri3˺ za-˹nun?˺-[...] 1 goat via Zanun-…,
  7.   1(u) 5(diš) udu ˹ša3 uri5 ki˺ [...] 15 sheep within Ur ...,
  8.   4(u) la2 1(diš) udu ˹giri3˺ [...] 39 sheep via ...,
  9.   e2 ˹x˺ [...] house ...
  10.   ˹iti ezem˺-[...] in the month “... Festival”;
  11.   8(diš) ˹udu˺ [...] 8 sheep ...,
  12.   8(diš) ˹udu˺ [...] 8 sheep ...,
  13.   1(diš) udu [...] 1 sheep ...,
  14.   1(diš) udu [...] 1 sheep ...,
  15.   4(diš) udu ki [...] 4 sheep ...,
  16.   6(diš) udu ˹a-lum˺ 6 long-fleeced sheep,
  17.   ezem-˹mah˺ [...] (in the month) “Grand Festival”;
  18.   [n] 2(u) udu ˹lu2˺ [...] 20+ sheep ...
  19.   ezem-˹an-na˺ (in the month) “An Festival”;
  20.   2(diš) udu ip-˹pa?˺ [...] 2 sheep of Ippa-…
  21.   [ezem]-me-ki-gal2 mu ˹x˺ [...] (in the month) “Mekigal Festival” of the year “...”;
left edge 1.   1(u) 8(diš) a-da-˹lal3˺ 4 (diš) udu ˹x˺ 1(diš) udu ˹x˺ 2(diš) ˹udu?˺ hal GAG [...] 18 sheep of Adalal, 4 sheep ..., 1 sheep ..., 2 sheep ...,
  2.   3(diš) udu iti [...] 2 (diš) udu a-da x x x 3 sheep in the month ..., 2 sheep of Ada-...,
  3.   [...] ˹iti ezem-an-na˺ ... month “An Festival,”
  4.   ˹mu en dnanna˺ year: “The en-priestness of Nanna” (AS 9).

 

§4.8.2. This text summarizes the sheep and goats contributed by a number of individuals during one period, probably AS 2-9.
Date: Although the abbreviated year name at the end of the text may refer to a number of different regnal years, AS 9 is most likely because two year names which appear elsewhere in the text (obv. 14, 16; rev. 4) certainly designate regnal years of King Amar-Suen.
Obv. 7: Personal name restored on its attestation in other Drehem texts.
Obv. 16: Cohen (1993: 134-135) points out that the month name referred to month ii during and before SS 2, but to month iii afterwards.
Rev. 4: The word gun3 means “multi-colored, speckled,” equivalent to barmu or šit’āru in Akkadian. It often appears attested as a description of the eyes of certain animals (see also no. 4.27 rev. 1-2), such as oxen, goats, or mice, or of the god Ningišzida (Falkenstein 1938: 4-7; Sjöberg 1975: 315; RlA 7, 607, s.v. “Maus”). There is also a deity named Igi-gun3-gun3 (Falkenstein 1938: 5). Steinkeller (1995: 69 n. 103) distinguishes the orthography of gun3 from that of si4, which means “brown, red.”
Rev. 5: Further information on la2-NI available in the comment on obv. 2 of no. 3.11.
Rev. 16: Steinkeller (1995: 52) discusses the meaning of A.LUM = aslumx as “long-fleeced.” Also attested in no. 4.15 obv. 6; no. 4.27 obv. 14; no. 4.36 obv. 1.

 

§4.9. Receipt of livestock
Museum No.: E59459
Date: Day 25
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.9.1.

obv. 1.   1(diš) sila4 1 lamb,
  2.   ensi2 gir2-su˹ki˺ of the governor of Girsu;
  3.   1(diš) ˹sila4˺ 1 lamb,
  4.   ˹id˺-ni-in-dsuen of Idnin-Sin;
rev.     broken
left edge 1.   u4 2(u) ˹5˺(diš)-˹kam˺ ... on the 25th day (of the month).

 

§4.9.2. This text records two lambs contributed by two individuals, including the governor of Girsu. Its Drehem provenience is deduced from close parallels of obv. 3-4 that appear in several Drehem texts, such as BPOA 6, 678 (SH 47/v/6) rev. 2 and MVN 1, 144 (month i) obv. 9.

 

§4.10. Transfer of livestock
Museum No.: E59474
Date: SH 42/AS 6/i/29
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.10.1.

obv. 1.   [n] sila4 ... lamb(s),
  2.   u4 3(u) la2 1(diš)-kam on the 29th day (of the month),
  3.   ki ab-ba-sa6-ga-ta from Abba-saga,
  4.   na-lu5 Nalu
rev. 1.   i3-dab5 took.
  2.   iti maš-da3-gu7 Month: “Gazelle eating.”
  3.   mu ša-aš-ruki ba-hul Year: “Šašru was destroyed.”

 

§4.10.2. This text records an unknown number of lambs Nalu took from Abba-saga, an administrator of the Central Bureau.

 

§4.11. Transfer of livestock
Museum No.: E59463
Date: SH 42/AS 6/iv/23
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.11.1.

obv. 1.   2(diš) sila4 2 lambs,
  2.   u4 2(u) 3(diš)-kam on the 23rd day (of the month),
  3.   ki ab-ba-sa6-ga-˹ta˺ from Abba-saga,
rev. 1.   in-ta-˹e3˺-[a] Inta’e’a
  2.   i3-dab5 took.
  3.   iti ki-siki-dnin-a-zu Month: “Wool-workers of Ninazu.”
  4.   mu ša-aš-ruki ba-hul Year: “Šašru was destroyed.”
left edge 1.   2(diš) (Total:) 2.

 

§4.11.2. This text notes two lambs Inta’e’a took from Abba-saga. Both were functionaries of the Central Bureau.

 

§4.12. Transfer of livestock
Museum No.: E59441
Date: SH 44/v/12
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.12.1.

obv. 1.   3(u) 3(diš) udu [...] 33 sheep ...,
  2.   1(u) 1(diš) u8 šu-gid2 11 ewes (as) šugid,
  3.   [n] sila4 gaba lugal ... semi-weaned lamb(s) of the royal grade,
  4.   4(diš) maš2-gal 4 bucks,
  5.   ˹e2˺-u4-1(u) 5(diš) for the House of the Full Moon (literally, “day 15”);
  6.   iti ˹u4 1(u) 2(diš) ba˺-zal on day 12 of the month,
rev. 1.   ki na-˹lu5˺-[ta] from Nalu,
  2.   na-sa6 i3-˹dab5˺ Nasa took.
  blank space
  3.   iti ezem-˹dnin-a-zu˺ Month: “Festival of Ninazu.”
  4.   mu si-mu-˹ru-um˺ki u3 lu-lu-˹bu˺ki a-ra2 1(u) la2 1(diš)-˹kam˺ ba-˹hul˺ Year: “Simurum and Lulubu were destroyed for the 9th time.”

 

§4.12.2. This text records the sheep and goats Nasa, a Central Bureau administrator, took from Nalu for celebrating the full moon.
Obv. 2: The phrase šu-gid2 means “to extend (one’s) hand, to take or accept.” It also appears in no. 4.23 obv. 2 and no. 4.33 obv. 5. According to Sigrist (1992: 40-42), in Drehem texts it often designates animals delivered by shepherds or distributed to the Kitchen.
Obv. 3: Two opinions exist as to the meaning of gaba, which is also attested in no. 4.25 obv. 6. W. Heimpel (1993: 122-123) suggests that we may relate it to gaba-tab, which refers to animals young enough to be held against one’s breast. On the other hand, Steinkeller (1995: 54-55) proposes that gaba describes semi-weaned animals around one-month old. The exact meaning of lugal escapes us here. As a qualifier of suckling lambs or kids, it appears in several other texts, including one from Drehem (YOS 18, 35 = ASJ 11 158-159 [SH 44] rev. 7) and two from Nippur (BBVO 11, 270, 6N-T106 [no date] rev. 3; BBVO 11, 294, 6N-T618 [SS 7/vi/15] rev. 4). Judging from the context, it seems more likely to designate a grade of domestic animals than something reserved for the king.

 

§4.13. Transfer of livestock
Museum No.: E59452
Date: SH 44/v/12
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.13.1.

obv. 1.   7(diš) gu4 niga sag gu4 7 barley-fed oxen of top grade,
  2.   1(u) gu4 [...] 10 oxen ...,
  3.   siskur2 NE-˹NE˺-gar (as) siskur-offering during the month “...”
  4.   ˹u3˺ eš3-eš3 e2-u4-1(u) 5(diš) and (for) the ešeš-celebration in the House of the Full Moon (“day 15”);
  5.   [iti] ˹u4˺ 1(u) 2(diš) ba-zal on day 12 of the month,
rev. 1.   [ki d]˹šul˺-gi-a-a-mu-ta from Šulgi-ayamu,
  2.   na-sa6 i3-dab5 Nasa took.
  3.   iti ezem-dnin-a-zu Month: “Festival of Ninazu.”
  4.   mu si-mu-ru-umki u3 ˹lu˺-lu-buki a-ra2 1(u) la2 1(diš)-kam-aš ba-hul Year: “Simurum and Lulubu were destroyed for the 9th time.”

 

§4.13.2. This text records seventeen oxen Nasa took from Šulgi-ayamu as siskur-offerings and as offerings for the eš3-eš3 festival. It represents a transfer from the Fattening House to the Central Bureau.
Obv. 1: The phrase sag gu4 means literally “head ox” (Hilgert & Reichel 2003: 429), but its exact meaning here escapes us. Our search in BDTNS and CDLI showed that in Drehem texts, it always appears as an attributive of barley-fed oxen.
Obv. 3: The name NE-NE-gar refers to the fifth month in Nippur (Cohen 1993: 100-104). For other attestations of this offering, see Sallaberger 1993, vol. 2: 75.
Obv. 4: The eš3-eš3 festival was dedicated to the worship of the deities Enlil and Ninlil and their entourage. The celebration took place three times a month, on the day of the crescent, the 7th day, and the 15th day (Sallaberger 1993, vol. 1: 56-58).

 

§4.14. Transfer of livestock
Museum No.: E59471
Date: SH 45/AS 2/i/19
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.14.1.

obv. 1.   8(diš) udu niga 8 barley-fed sheep,
  2.   u4 2(u) la2 1(diš)-˹kam˺ on the 19th day (of the month),
  3.   ki ab-ba-sa6-ga-ta from Abba-saga,
  4.   na-lu5 Nalu
rev. 1.   i3-dab5 took.
  2.   iti maš-da3-gu7 Month: “Gazelle eating.”
  3.   mu ur-bi2-lumki ba-hul Year: “Urbilum was destroyed.”
left edge 1.   8(diš) (Total:) 8.

 

§4.14.2. This text notes eight sheep Nalu took from Abba-saga, a Central Bureau administrator.

 

§4.15. Transfer of livestock
Museum No.: E59425
Date: SH 47/xi/25
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.15.1.

obv. 1.   5(u) 6(diš) gu4 niga 56 barley-fed oxen,
  2.   1(diš) gu4 geš-du3 niga 1 barley-fed breeding bull,
  3.   3(diš) ab2 niga 3 barley-fed cows,
  4.   1(u) 5(diš) udu niga saga 15 barley-fed sheep of good quality,
  5.   4(u) 5(diš) udu niga 45 barley-fed sheep,
  6.   2(u) udu a-lum 20 long-fleeced sheep,
  7.   ˹7?˺(diš) udu 1(diš) sila4 7? sheep, 1 lamb,
  8.   [...] ITI A nu-ni-da ... of Nunida;
rev. 1.   [n] sila4 ... lambs,
  2.   zi-qur2-i3-li2 of Ziqur-ilī;
  blank space
  3.   mu-kux(DU) (as) delivery,
  4.   na-sa6 i3-dab5 Nasa took.
  5.   ˹iti ezem˺-me-ki-gal2 Month: “Mekigal Festival.”
  6.   [mu us2-sa] ki-maški [ba]-hul Year after: “Kimaš was destroyed.”
left edge 1.   u4 2(u) 5(diš)-kam The 25th day (of the month).

 

§4.15.2. This text lists the sheep first delivered by Ziqur-ilī and later taken by Nasa, a Central Bureau official.
Obv. 6: For the identification of udu a-lum (aslumx), see comment on rev. 16 of no. 4.8. Also attested in no. 4.27 obv. 14; no. 4.36 obv. 1.
Obv. 8: The same Nunida reappears as a contributor of livestock in a text dated two days later, PDT 1, 44 (SH 47/xi/27) obv. 7; he is identified as an ugula, “overseer,” in Fs Astour 369 (AS 8/iv/13) obv. 3. His spouse (dam) was allocated one barley-fed ox in Ontario 1, 17 (SH 41/v), but herself contributed five grass-fed sheep in PDT 2, 1035 (SH 46/iii/3).

 

§4.16. Transfer of livestock
Museum No.: E59440
Date: SH 48
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.16.1.

obv. 1.   [n] dusu2-nita2 amar ga ... suckling male equids,
  2.   1(diš) dusu2-munus amar ga 1 suckling female equid,
  3.   u3-tu-da new-borns;
rev. 1.   giri3 bu3-lu5-˹lu5˺ via Bululu,
  2.   mu-kux(DU) (as) delivery,
  3.   na-˹sa6˺ i3-dab5 Nasa took.
  blank space
  4.   [mu] ˹hu-ur5-tiki˺ ˹u3 ha-ar-šiki ba-hul˺ Year: “Hurti and Harši were destroyed.”

 

§4.16.2. This text lists three new-born equids taken by Nasa, a Central Bureau official. Similar transactions of his are listed in Hilgert 1998: 467-468.

 

§4.17. Transfer of livestock
Museum No.: E59412
Date: AS 2/vii/11
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.17.1.

obv. 1.   3(diš) sila4 ga 3 suckling lambs,
  2.   1(diš) kir11 ga 1 suckling ewe lamb,
  3.   u3-tu-da new-borns;
  4.   u4 1(u) 1(diš)-kam on the 11th day (of the month),
rev. 1.   dšul-gi-a-a-mu i-dab5 Šulgi-ayamu took.
  2.   iti ezem-dšul-gi Month: “Festival of Šulgi.”
  3.   mu damar-dsuen lugal-e ur-bi2-lumki mu-hul Year: “King Amar-Sin destroyed Urbilum.”
left edge 1.   4(diš) (Total:) 4.

 

§4.17.2. This text records four lambs taken by Šulgi-ayamu, a leading official of the Fattening House.

 

§4.18. Transfer of livestock
Museum No.: E59461
Date: AS 3/iv/7
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.18.1.

obv. 1.   3(diš) sila4 ga 3 suckling lambs,
  2.   1(diš) kir11 ˹ga˺ 1 suckling female lamb,
  3.   u3-tu-˹da˺ new-borns;
  4.   u4 7(diš)-kam on the 7th day (of the month),
  5.   ša3 na-gab2-tum-ma inside the Fattening House,
rev. 1.   lu2-dingir-ra Lu-dingira
  2.   i3-˹dab5˺ took.
  3.   iti ki-siki-d˹nin˺-[a-zu] Month: “Wool-workers of Ninazu.”
  4.   mu dgu-˹za den˺-lil2-la2 ba-˹dim2˺ Year: “The throne of Enlil was made.”
left edge 1.   4(diš) (Total:) 4.

 

§4.18.2. This text records four lambs taken by Lu-dingira, a branch manager of the Fattening House.
Obv. 5: The term nagabtum designates a sheepfold or cattle pen where activities of animals were restricted in order for them to gain weight (Sigrist 1992: 39-40). It is also attested in no. 4.19 obv. 6, and more references appear listed in Hilgert & Reichel 2003: 43 n. 132.

 

§4.19. Transfer of livestock
Museum No.: E59410
Date: AS 4/xii/7
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.19.1.

obv. 1.   1(diš) amar gu4 ga 1 suckling calf,
  2.   1(u) 5(diš) sila4 ga 15 suckling lambs,
  3.   7(diš) kir11 ga 7 suckling female lambs,
  4.   8(diš) maš2 ga 8 suckling kids,
  5.   u3-tu-da new-borns
  6.   ša3 na-gab2-tum-ma inside the Fattening House,
rev. 1.   u4 7(diš)-kam on the 7th day (of the month),
  2.   dšul-gi-a-a-mu i3-dab5 Šulgi-ayamu took.
  3.   iti še-sag11-ku5 Month: “Harvest.”
  4.   mu en-mah-gal-an-na en dnanna ba-hun Year: “Enmahgal-ana, the en-priestess of Nanna, was installed.”
left edge 1.   1(diš) gu4 3(u) ˹udu˺ (Total:) 1 ox 30 sheep.

 

§4.19.2. This text registers thirty-one new-born domestic animals taken by Šulgi-ayamu, a top administrator of the Fattening House.
Obv. 6: For nagabtum, see comment on obv. 5 of no. 4.18.

 

§4.20. Transfer of livestock
Museum No.: E59453
Date: AS 4/?/9
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.20.1.

obv. 1.   2(u) 2(diš) [...] 22 ...,
  2.   1(u) 1(diš) [...] 11 ...,
  3.   5(diš) maš2 5 kids,
  4.   u4 1(u) la2 1(diš)-kam on the 9th day (of the month),
  5.   ˹ki ab-ba-sa6-ga˺-ta from Abba-saga,
  6.   in-ta-e3-a Inta’e’a.
rev. 1.   i3-[dab5] took
  blank space
  2.   ˹iti˺ [...] Month: “...”;
  3.   mu [en-mah-gal-an]-na en [dnanna] ˹ba-hun˺ Year: “Enmahgal-ana, the en-priestess of Nanna, was installed.”
left edge 1.   [3(u) 8(diš)] [(Total:) 38.]

 

§4.20.2. This text records thirty-eight kids(?) Inta’e’a took from Abba-saga. It was a transfer within the Central Bureau.

 

§4.21. Transfer of livestock
Museum No.: E59422
Date: AS 5/x/3
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.21.1.

obv. 1.   1(diš) maš2 la-gi-ip 1 kid of Lagip,
  2.   1(diš) maš2 bur-ma-ma 1 kid of Burmama,
  3.   1(diš) ˹sila4˺ [...]-bar-re 1 lamb of ...,
  4.   1(diš) ˹sila4˺ dingir-ba-ni 1 lamb of Dingir-bani,
  5.   1(diš) sila4 šu-ri-im-ku 1 lamb of Šurimku,
  6.   1(diš) sila4 im-me-er 1 lamb of Imer,
  7.   1(diš) maš2 e2-a-ma-lik 1 kid of E’a-malik,
  8.   1(diš) maš2 ˹tu˺-da-ri 1 kid of Tudari,
  9.   1(diš) sila4 ˹er3˺-re-šum 1 lamb of Errēšum,
  10.   1(diš) maš2 ˹a2˺-bi2-li2 1 kid of Abi-ilī,
  11.   [n ...]-ni n ...,
rev. 1'.   1(diš) sila4 še-le-bu-um 1 lamb of Šelebum,
  2'.   1(diš) sila4 ˹da-da˺ u3-kul 1 lamb of Dada the soldier?,
  3'.   1(diš) sila4 a-bu-za 1 lamb of Abuza,
  4'.   1(diš) ˹ṣe˺-li-dšul-gi 1 of Ṣelli-Šulgi,
  5'.   2(diš) hu-un-nu-um šuš3 2 of Hunum, the chief livestock manager,
  6'.   2(diš) ˹lugal˺-me-lam2 ensi2 nibruki 2 of Lugal-melam, governor of Nippur,
  7'.   1(diš) ˹šu˺-didim 1 of Šu-Idim,
  8'.   2(diš) udu 1(diš) sila4 ur-dba-ba6 ugula ug3-IL2 2 sheep 1 lamb of Ur-Baba, the foreman of menials,
  9'.   2(diš) sila4 wa-ta2-ru-um sanga 2 lambs of Watarum, the temple administrator;
  10'.   u4 3(diš)-kam on the 3rd day (of the month)
  11'.   ˹mu-kux(DU)˺ ab-ba-sa6-ga i3-˹dab5˺ (as) delivery, Abba-saga took.
  12'.   iti ezem-an-na Month: “An Festival.”
  13'.   mu en-unu6-gal d˹inanna˺ unuki ba-hun Year: “Enunugal of Inanna was installed in Uruk.”

 

§4.21.2. This text lists the sheep and goats taken by Abba-saga, a Central Bureau official. The livestock originally came from about two dozen individuals.
Rev. 2': The phrase u3-kul presumably refers to an occupation. D. Freedman (1977: 14, obv. 7) translates it as “soldier” without any explanation. Dahl (2007: 154) suggests the connection of this title to the military.
Rev. 5': The title šuš3 appears also in the seal inscription of no. 3.2, a text from Umma. Activities of Ur-e’e, the well-attested chief livestock manager there, show that this title may involve responsibities concerning not only animal husbandry but also agricultural work (Dahl 2007: 85-96).
Rev. 7': See no. 4.5 for comments on Šu-Idim.

 

§4.22. Transfer of livestock
Museum No.: E53747
Date: AS 7/x/13
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.22.1.

obv. 1.   1(geš2) 1(u) la2 1(diš) udu niga 69 barley-fed sheep,
  2.   1(diš) maš2-gal niga 1 barley-fed buck,
  3.   2(geš2) 4(u) 3(diš) udu 163 sheep,
  4.   4(geš2) 3(diš) maš2-gal 243 bucks,
  5.   u4 1(u) 3(diš)-kam on the 13th day (of the month)
  6.   ki ab-ba-sa6-ga-ta from Abba-saga,
rev. 1.   a-hu-we-er Ahu-wer
  2.   i3-dab5 took.
  blank space
  3.   iti ezem-an-na Month: “An Festival.”
  4.   mu hu-uh2-nu-riki ba-hul Year: “Huhnuri was destroyed.”
left edge 1.   7(geš2) 5(u) 6(diš) udu (Total:) 476 sheep (and goats).

 

§4.22.2. This text records a large number of sheep and goats Ahu-wer took from Abba-saga. It was a transfer from the Central Bureau to the Fattening House.

 

§4.23. Transfer of livestock
Museum No.: E59451
Date: AS 8/ix
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.23.1.

obv. 1.   [2(u)] udu 20 sheep,
  2.   ˹šu-gid2˺ (as) šugid,
  3.   u4 ˹1(u)˺ 3(diš)?-kam on the 13th ? day (of the month),
  4.   ki ab-ba-sa6-ga-ta from Abba-saga,
rev. 1.   du11-ga Duga
  2.   i3-dab5 took.
  blank space
  3.   iti ezem-mah Month: “Grand Festival.”
  4.   mu en eriduki ba-hun Year: “The en-priestess of Eridu was installed.”
left edge 1.   2(u) (Total:) 20.

 

§4.23.2. This text notes twenty sheep Duga took from Abba-saga. Both were officials of the Central Bureau.
Obv. 2: More information on šu-gid2 is available in the comment on obv. 2 of no. 4.12; also attested in no. 4.33 obv. 5.

 

§4.24. Transfer of livestock
Museum No.: E59423
Date: SS 4/i/28?
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.24.1.

obv. 1.   4(diš) udu ˹niga˺ 4 barley-fed sheep,
  2.   1(diš) [udu ...] 1 ... sheep,
  3.   d˹šul˺-gi-[...] of Šulgi-...;
  4.   1(diš) sila4 šar-ru-[...] 1 lamb of ...;
  5.   1(diš) amar maš-da3 nita2 1 male calf of a gazelle
  6.   ib-ni-dšul-˹gi˺ of Ibni-Šulgi;
rev. 1.   ˹u4 2(u)? 8(diš)?-kam˺ on the 28th? day (of the month),
  2.   mu-kux(DU) lugal (as) delivery for the king,
  3.   in-ta-e3-a Inta’e’a
  4.   i3-˹dab5˺ took,
  5.   ˹giri3˺ nu-ur2-d˹suen˺ via Nūr-Sin.
  6.   iti še-sag11-˹ku5˺ Month: “Harvest.”
  7.   mu us2-sa dšu-d˹suen˺ lugal-˹e si-ma-num2 ki˺ mu-˹hul˺ Year after: “King Šu-Sin destroyed Simanum.”
left edge 1.   6(diš) udu 1(diš) maš-da3 (Total:) 6 sheep, 1 gazelle.

 

§4.24.2. This text records six sheep and one gazelle taken by Inta’e’a, an administrator of the Central Bureau. These animals had been registered as a delivery for the king (mu-kux[DU] lugal) before Inta’e’a took them. According to Sallaberger (1993, vol. 1: 28), starting from SS 3/vii/16, the more specific term mu-kux(DU) lugal replaced mu-kux(DU) as a designation for animal deliveries to Drehem.
Obv. 4: It is tempting to restore the end as šar-ru-[mi-um], which could be a variant of the standard spelling ša-ru-mi-um, the designation of a foreign breed of sheep. However, the former spelling appears attested only in one text, SET 32 obv. 1, thus likely to be a misprint as Steinkeller (1995: 53, 67 n. 70) points out.

 

§4.25. Transfer of livestock
Museum No.: E59469
Date: SS 6
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.25.1.

obv. 1.   1(diš) maš2-gal niga saga 1 barley-fed buck of good quality,
  2.   2(diš) maš2-gal niga saga us2 2 barley-fed bucks of 2nd grade,
  3.   7(diš) maš2-gal niga 4(diš)-kam us2 7 barley-fed bucks of 4th grade,
  4.   1(u) munus2-gar3 niga 4(diš)-kam us2 10 barley-fed female kids of 4th grade,
  5.   2(diš) munus2-gar3 niga 2 barley-fed female kids,
  6.   1(diš) maš2 gaba 1 semi-weaned kid,
  7.   2(diš) munus˹aš2-gar3˺ [...] 2 female kids ...,
  8.   mu-kux(DU) ˹u3˺ [...] teš2-a šum2-de3 [geš-bur2 nu-su-su] (as) delivery and ... to give ...;
rev. 1.   ki a-˹ba-den-˺-[lil2-gin7-ta] from Aba-Enlilgin,
  2.   du-u2-du [i3-dab5] Duyudu took.
  3.   mu dšu-d˹suen˺ lugal uri5 ki-˹ma˺-ke4 na-ru2-a-mah ˹den-lil2 dnin-lil2-ra˺ mu-ne-du3 Year: “Šu-Sin, king of Ur, erected the grand-stele for Enlil (and) Ninlil.”
left edge 1.   2(u) 5(diš) udu (Total:) 25 sheep.

 

§4.25.2. This text registers twenty-five sheep and goats Duyudu took from Aba-Enlilgin. It is parallel to another Drehem text SAKF 122 (SS 6/iv).
Obv. 6: For the meaning of gaba, see comment on obv. 3 of no. 4.12.
Obv. 8-Rev. 1: Restoration based on the parallel above. The meaning of teš2-a šum2-de3 remains obscure. A. Falkenstein (1956, vol. 2: 19) suggests the translation “sie werden in eins machen” for teš2-a se3-ge4-dam, but such a meaning does not seem to fit into the context here. How to understand geš-bur2 proves more problematic. It is usually attested in literary compositions and refers to a trap (Sjöberg 1973: 39, l. 32, in conjunction with the verb nu2, “to lie down”; 1974-1975: 175, l. 6') or a stick (Heimpel 1972: 287, l. 103). A cuneiform tablet housed in the Archaeological Museum of Florence, SAKF 122 (SS 6/iv), is the only Ur III administrative text attesting to the term geš-bur2. Collation of this tablet is necessary before any further analysis.

 

§4.26. Transfer of livestock
Museum No.: E59417
Date: Month ii/iii
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.26.1.

obv. 1.   1(diš) udu 1 sheep,
  2.   ki ab-ba-sa6-ga-ta from Abba-saga,
  3.   a-hu-wa-˹qar˺ i3-dab5 Ahu-waqar took.
rev. 1.   iti ses-da-[gu7] Month: “Eating piglets.”
seal   illegible

 

§4.26.2. This text records one sheep taken by Ahu-waqar from Abba-saga, a Central Bureau official.

 

§4.27. Transfer of livestock
Museum No.: E59418
Date: broken
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.27.1.

obv.  1.   4(diš) sila4 gub [...] 4 lambs ...,
  2.   8(diš) kir11 [gub] [...] 8 female lambs ...,
  3.   5(diš) maš2 ˹gub˺ [...] 5 kids ...,
  4.   6(diš) munus2-gar3 ˹gub˺ [...] 6 female kids ...,
  5.   [2(u) 3(diš)] (subtotal:) 23,
  6.   u3-tu-da new-borns;
  7.   2(diš) kir11˹gub˺ [...] 2 female lambs ...,
  8.   1(diš) ˹maš2 ˺[gub] [...] 1 kid ...,
  9.   1(diš) ˹maš2˺ [gub] [...] 1 kid ...,
  10.   3(diš) munus2-gar3 [gub] [...] 3 female kids ...,
  11.   2(diš) munus2-gar3 ˹gub˺ [...] 2 female kids,
  12.   1(u) la2 1(diš) (subtotal:) 9,
  13.   diri u3-˹tu-da˺ additional new-borns;
  14.   1(diš) sila4 ga a-lum 1 suckling long-fleeced lamb,
  15.   1 maš2 ga 1 suckling kid,
rev. 1.   1(diš) maš2 ga igi-˹gun3˺ 1 suckling kid, speckled,
  2.   1(diš) munus2-gar igi-gun3 1 female kid, speckled,
  3.   4 (diš) (subtotal:) 4,
  4.   diri u3-tu-da ba-uš2 additional new-borns died;
  5.   ša3 libir among the “old” (delivery).
  6.   1(diš) kir11 ga gukkal 1 suckling fat-tailed female lamb,
  7.   1(diš) (subtotal:) 1,
  8.   ˹u3˺-tu-da ba-[uš2] new-born died,
  9.   ša3 mu-kux(DU)-˹ra˺ among the delivery of sheep.
    blank space  
  10.   [...] e23 ... house of shrine
  11.   [...] i3-dab5 ... took.
  12.   [...] ...
  13.   [...] ...
  14.   iti [...] u4 [...] Month: “...,” ...th day,
  15.   mu [...] ba-[...] year: “...”.
left edge 1.   [3(u)] 7(diš) (Total:) 37.

 

§4.27.2. This text calculates the number of new-borns versus the dead among a group of sheep delivered. No personal name has been preserved. A fragment from a different tablet is put in the same bag as this tablet. The fragment reads: [...] tu-da [...]-[...] mu us2-˹sa˺ [...].
Provenience: That this tablet comes most likely from Drehem is based on the expression ša3 libir, which appears attested in Drehem texts only.
Obv. 1: Two opinions exist as to the meaning of gub as a description of domestic animals. Heimpel (1993: 125-127) interprets it as a designation of animals ready for their first shearing around the age of two, whereas Steinkeller (1995: 54-55) argues that it refers to animals which were semi-weaned after they turned about one-month old. The meaning suggested by Steinkeller fits better into the context here because the animals described as gub are classified as new-borns.
Obv. 14: Information on a-lum/aslumx is available in the comment to rev. 16 of no. 4.8. Also attested in no. 4.15 obv. 6; no. 4.36 obv. 1.
Rev. 1-2: For the meaning of gun3, see comment on rev. 4 of no. 4.8.
Rev. 5: The adjective libir seems unlikely to describe the age of animals, because three of the four animals listed in the preceding lines (obv. 14-rev. 3) are specified as sucklings. It probably refers to an accounting stage (de Maaijer 2001: 308 n. 66). Here we may understand it as an abbreviation of ša3 mu-kux libir, a delivery received earlier than the one recorded in rev. 9. This analysis finds support in another Drehem text Tavolette 281 (AS 5/vi/26), which describes an old animal that died further as ša3 libir: 1(diš) dara4-nita2 libir / ba-uš2 ša3 libir (obv. 1-2). The description ša3 libir would be redundant if it also refers to the age of the animal concerned. In our text, it remains uncertain whether ša3 libir applies only to the subtotal in rev. 3 or also to the two subtotals in obv. 5 and 12, though we consider the latter possibility more likely in view of the ša3 mu-kux appearing several lines later in rev. 9, which seems to explain the last, also the fourth sub-total in rev. 7.
Left edge: The number is restored by adding up the four subtotals in obv. 5, 12 and rev. 3, 7.

 

§4.28. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59437
Date: SH 43/vi
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.28.1.

obv. 1.   1(diš) sila4 dutu 1 lamb for the god Utu,
  2.   mu-kux(DU) ensi2 šuruppakki delivery of the governor of Šuruppak,
  3.   zabar-dab5 maškim the zabardab as the requisitioner;
  4.   1(diš) gu4 e2-muhaldim-še3 1 ox for the Kitchen;
rev. 1.   ˹u4˺ [...]-˹kam˺ on the ...th day (of the month)
  blank space
  2.   zi-ga withdrawn.
  3.   iti a2-ki-ti Month: “Akiti (Festival).”
  4.   mu en dnanna maš-e i3-pa3 Year: “The en-priestess of Nanna was chosen by means of extispicy.”

 

§4.28.2. This text records the withdrawal from an unknown party of two animals: one lamb as offering for the sun-god Utu and one ox for the Kitchen. The lamb was originally a delivery from the governor of Šuruppak.
Obv. 3: Sallaberger (1999: 186-188) points out that zabar-dab5, literally “bronze-holder,” refers to the highest ritual office in the Ur III kingdom, and only one person held the office at one time.

 

§4.29. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59454
Date: SH 46/v/30
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.29.1.

obv.  1.   3(diš) udu niga 3 barley-fed sheep
  2.   dinanna for the goddess Inanna,
  3.   1(diš) udu niga dgu-la 1 barley-fed sheep for the goddess Gula,
  4.   d˹nanše-GIR2gunû-gal maškim˺ Nanše-GIRgal as the requisitioner;
  5.   ˹iti u4˺ 3(u) ba-zal on day 30 of the month,
rev. 1.   ˹zi-ga˺ withdrawal
  2.   ša3 ˹unuki˺ inside the city of Uruk,
  3.   ki na-˹lu5˺ from Nalu(’s account).
  4.   iti ezem-˹dnin-a-zu˺ Month: “Festival of Ninazu.”
  5.   ˹mu ki-maški˺ ba-˹hul˺ Year: “Kimaš was destroyed.”

 

§4.29.2. This text records the withdrawal of four sheep from Nalu as offerings for two goddesses, Inanna and Gula.

 

§4.30. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59450
Date: SH 47/xii/8
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.30.1.

obv. 1.   1(diš) udu niga 1 barley-fed sheep
  2.   siskur2 dingir-ne (as) siskur-offering for gods,
    blank space  
  3.   1(diš) maš2-gal 1 buck
  4.   kaš-nag-še3 for “beer-drinking,”
  5.   ˹giri3˺ nin-ha-ma-ti via Ninhamati;
rev. 1.   1(diš) gu4 niga ba-uš2 1 barley-fed ox, slaughtered;
  2.   zi-ga ki kalam-he2-na-gi-ta withdrawal from Kalam-henagi(’s account),
  3.   iti-ta u4 8(diš) ba-ra-zal on day 8 of the month.
  4.   iti še-˹sag11˺-ku5 Month: “Harvest.”
  5.   mu us2-sa ki-maški u3 hur-tiki ba-hul Year after: “Kimaš and Hurti were destroyed.”

 

§4.30.2. This text records the withdrawal from Kalamhenagi of three animals, including a slaughtered ox. Kalam-henagi was one of the two officials (Ahima being the other one) attested in the capacity of zi-ga ki PN-ta (“withdrawal from PN”) in the archive of Šulgi-simti, queen of King Šulgi, in Drehem (Sallaberger 1993, vol. 1: 21-22). The formula in rev. 3 further confirms the archival context of this document (see comment on no. 4.3 rev. 1).

 

§4.31. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59421
Date: SH 48/x/30
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.31.1.

obv. 1.   8(u) la2 1(diš) gu4 niga 79 barley-fed oxen,
  2.   7(geš2) ab2 niga 420 barley-fed cows,
  3.   5(geš2) 1(diš) gu4 301 oxen,
  4.   6(geš2) 4(u) 7(diš) ab2 407 cows,
  5.   1(geš2) anšekunga2-nita2 60 male mules,
  6.   [n] dusu2-nita2 n male equids,
  ... ...
rev.     ... ...
  1'.   šu šum2-˹ma˺ as consignment,
  2'.   ki na-sa6 from Nasa(’s account).
  3'.   iti ezem-an-na u4 3(u) ba-zal Month: “An Festival”; day 30.
  4'.   mu ha-ar-šiki u3 ki-maški ˹ba˺-hul Year: “Harši and Kimaš were destroyed.”

 

§4.31.2. This text records more than 1,200 head of livestock probably withdrawn from Nasa, a major official operating the Central Bureau in Drehem. Our text is very likely to be one of the multiple documents that form the basis of RA 63, 102, a balanced account of Nasa which summarizes his receipts and expenditures of domestic animals from SH 44/xii to SH 48/x.
Rev. 1': The verb šu sum literally means “to hand over, entrust” (Sigrist 1992: 117; Sallaberger 1993, vol. 1: 49). Here the phrase šu sum-ma migh represent the abbreviated name of a building, e2 šu-sum-ma, which appears attested in the parallel RA 63, 102 rev. 12: zi-ga u3 e2 šu sum-ma. The precise function of this building escapes us.

 

§4.32. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59420
Date: SH 48/xii/21
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.32.1.

obv.  1.   ˹1(diš)˺ udu [...] 1 sheep ...
  2.   d[en-lil2] for Enlil,
  3.   1(diš) [...] 1 ...
  4.   d[nin-lil2] for Ninlil,
  5.   ˹siskur2˺ [ša3 e2-a] (as) siskur-offering inside the house;
  6.   2(diš) [... du6-ku3] 2 ... for the Holy Mound,
  7.   1(diš) [... dnin-hur]-sag 1 ... for Ninhursag,
  8.   1(diš) [... dnusku] 1 ... for Nusku,
  9.   1(diš) [... dnin-urta] 1 ... for Ninurta,
  10.   1(diš) [... dinanna] 1 ... for Inanna,
  11.   1(diš) ˹udu niga dnin-sun2˺ 1 barley-fed sheep for Ninsun,
  12.   1(diš) maš2-gal niga dlugal-banda3da 1 barley-fed buck for Lugal-banda,
rev. 1.   1(diš) maš2-gal dšul-gi 1 buck for Šulgi,
  2.   1(diš) maš2-gal dnin-din-ug5-˹ga˺ 1 buck for Nindinuga,
  3.   siskur2 ge6 (as) siskur-offering at night;
  4.   dnanše-GIR2gunû-gal ˹maškim˺ Nanše-GIRgal as the requisitioner,
  5.   iti u4 2(u) 1(diš) ba-zal on day 21 of the month;
  blank space
  6.   šu+nigin2 8(diš) udu niga 6(diš) [maš2-gal] ˹niga˺ total: 8 barley-fed sheep (and) 6 barley-fed bucks;
  7.   ki na-lu5-ta ba-[zi] withdrawn from Nalu(’s account).
  8.   iti še-sag11-ku5 Month: “Harvest.”
  9.   mu ha-ar-šiki u3 ki-maški ba-hul Year: “Harši and Kimaš were destroyed.”

 

§4.32.2. This text lists the sheep and goats withdrawn from Nalu as two types of offerings made in Nippur: siskur in the Ekur temple complex for Enlil and Ninlil, and siskur at night for the rest of the deities (Sallaberger 1993, vol. 1: 111-112). Restorations are based on the parallels listed ibid., vol. 2: 64-65.

 

§4.33. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59409
Date: AS 2/ix/14
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.33.1.

obv. 1.   2(diš) gu4 1(diš) ab2 2 oxen, 1 cow,
  2.   1(u) 5(diš) udu 2(u) 1(diš) u8 15 sheep, 21 ewes,
  3.   1(diš) sila4 1 lamb,
  4.   2(diš) ud5 2 female goats,
  5.   šu-gid2 e2-muhaldim-še3 (as) provisions for the Kitchen;
  6.   u4 1(u) 4(diš)-kam on the 14th day (of the month),
rev. 1.   ki ab-ba-sa6-ga-ta from Abba-saga(’s account)
  2.   ba-zi withdrawn.
  3.   iti ezem-mah Month: “Grand Festival.”
  4.   mu damar-dsuen lugal-e ur-bi2-lumki mu-hul Year: “King Amar-Sin destroyed Urbilum.”
left edge 1.   4(u) 3(diš) (Total:) 43.

 

§4.33.2. This text lists forty-two domestic animals withdrawn from the Central Bureau as represented by Abba-saga for the Kitchen in Drehem.
Obv. 5: For šu-gid2, see comment on no. 4.12 obv. 2; also attested in no. 4.23 obv. 2.
Left edge: This total is one more than what the numbers in obv. 1-4 add up to.

 

§4.34. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59408
Date: AS 4/i/4
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.34.1.

obv. 1.   2(diš) udu niga ˹dgu˺-la 2 barley-fed sheep for Gula,
  2.   1(diš) udu niga an 1 barley-fed sheep for An,
  3.   1(diš) udu niga dinanna 1 barley-fed sheep for Inanna,
  4.   1(diš) udu niga dnin-hur-sag 1 barley-fed sheep for Ninhursag
  5.   ša3 unuki-ga in Uruk,
  6.   1(diš) udu niga dutu larsaki 1 barley-fed sheep for Utu in Larsa,
  7.   1(diš) udu niga dnanna-an-na 1 barley-fed sheep for Nanna-ana,
  8.   1(diš) ˹udu niga d˺inanna 1 barley-fed sheep for Inanna,
  9.   ˹1(diš) udu niga˺ dnin-gal 1 barley-fed sheep for Ningal;
rev. 1.   ša3 tur3-gal in the large sheepfold,
  2.   zi-ga u4 4(diš)-kam withdrawals on the 4th day (of the month);
  3.   ki a-hu-we-er-ta from Ahu-wer(’s account)
  4.   ba-zi withdrawn.
  5.   iti maš-ku3-gu7 Month: “Gazelle eating.”
  6.   mu us2-sa gešgu-za den-lil2-la2 ba-dim2 Year after: “The throne of the god Enlil was made.”

 

§4.34.2. This text lists a total of nine sheep withdrawn as offerings for eight deities from Ahu-wer, one of the two branch managers of the Fattening House. In this capacity, he received livestock from the Central Bureau and expended it to deities and foreign emissaries.

 

§4.35. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59424
Date: AS 4/iii/16
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.35.1.

obv. 1.   1(diš) ˹udu˺ niga a-mur-dingir 1 barley-fed sheep for Amur-ilī
  2.   ˹lu2˺-kin-gi4-a li-ba-nu-ug-ša-ba-aš ensi2 mar-ha-˹ši˺ki messenger of Libanug-šabaš, governor of Marhaši,
  3.   giri3 lu2-d˹da˺-mu sukkal via Lu-Damu, the messenger;
  4.   1(diš) maš2-gal niga gu-˹ra˺-a lu2 ur-šu˹ki˺ 1 barley-fed buck for Guraya, a man from Uršu,
  5.   1(diš) udu niga e2-um lu2 ma-[ri2ki] 1 barley-fed sheep for E’um, a man from Mari,
rev. 1.   ˹giri3˺ bi2-li2-la sukkal via Bilila, the messenger,
  2.   ARAD2-mu maškim ARADmu as the requisitioner;
  3.   iti u4 1(u) 6(diš) ba-zal day 16 of the month,
  4.   ki dšul-gi-a-a-mu-ta from Šulgi-ayamu(’s account)
  5.   ba-zi withdrawn.
  6.   iti u5-bi2-gu7 Month: “Eating ubi-birds.”
  7.   mu us2-sa gu-za den-lil2-la2 ba-dim2 Year after: “The throne of the god Enlil was made.”
left edge 1.   3(diš) udu (Total:) 3 sheep.

 

§4.35.2. This text lists the sheep and goats withdrawn from Šulgi-ayamu, a top administrator of the Fattening House, as a treat for foreign emissaries, a practice attested in no. 4.38 too and studied by T. Sharlach (2005). Close parallels to our text here include TLB 3, 25 (AS 4/iii/22) and MVN 3, 384 (month iii/7).
Obv. 2: Steinkeller (1982b; 2006) has identified Marhaši with the region of Kerman located to the east of the ancient kingdom Elam based on textual and archaeological evidence.

 

§4.36. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59436
Date: AS 5/ix/9
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.36.1.

obv. 1.   5(diš) udu a-lum 5 long-fleeced sheep
  2.   lugal-ma2-gur8-re for Lugal-magure,
  3.   u2-ta2-mi-šar-ra-am ˹maškim˺ Uta-mišaram as the requisitioner;
  4.   2(diš) amar az 2 bear cubs
  5.   e2-uz-ga for the E’uzga house,
  6.   a-a-kal-la maškim Ayakala as the requisitioner;
rev. 1.   1(diš) gu4 1(u) udu šimašgi2 1 ox, 10 Šimaškian sheep,
  2.   ur-dnin-gublaga nar for Ur-Ningublaga, the singer;
  3.   ša3 mu-kux(DU)-ra-ta from among the deliveries,
  4.   u4 1(u) la2 1(diš)-kam on the 9th day (of the month)
  5.   ki ab-ba-˹sa6˺-ga-ta (withdrawn) from Abba-saga(’s account).
  6.   iti ezem-˹mah˺ Month: “Grand Festival.”
  7.   mu en dinanna ba-hun Year: “The en-priest of Inanna was installed.”
left edge 1.   1(u) 8(diš) (Total:) 18.

 

§4.36.2. This text records the withdrawal from Abbasaga, a Central Bureau official, of sheep for two individuals and of bear cubs for the E’uzga. It is closely parallel to two other Drehem texts, OIP 121, 276 (AS 5/ ix/15) and MVN 13, 812 (AS 5/ix/29), which date to the same month of the same year. One beneficiary, Ur-Ningublaga the singer, are allocated one ox plus twelve sheep and three sheep respectively in these two texts.
Obv. 1: The term a-lum (aslumx) appears discussed in the comment on rev. 16 of no. 4.8. Also attested in no. 4.15 obv. 6; no. 4.27 obv. 14.
Obv. 5: The exact function of E’uzga remains obscure (Johnson 2004: §3.2). Sigrist (1992: 158-162) suggests the relation between uz-ga and uzu-ga, with the latter meaning “culturally impure.” Along this line, E’uzga may refer to a location where people culturally or temporarily impure would be confined. For reasons unclear to us, important officials such as governors also stayed there temporarily, which helps to explain why both domestic and wild animals were delivered there. The study of Y. Wu (1996) shows that gazelle calves and suckling lambs accounted for the majority of the animals delivered to the E’uzga in Drehem, most probably for the consumption of the royal family. Exotic animals such as bear cubs, as this text attests, were also delivered sometimes. Wu concludes that the e2-uz-ga served as a private palace of the Ur III king, where he stayed occasionally.
Rev. 1: Steinkeller (1988) proposes to read LU.SU as Šimaški, which finds confirmation in an Emar text published in Civil 1996.
Rev. 3: According to Hilgert & Reichel 2003: 20-21, starting with the year of AS 5, this new formula gradually replaced the old one mu-kux PN, “delivery of PN”, to denote the origin of animals withdrawn from the Central Bureau in Drehem. Also attested in no. 4.37 rev. 4; no. 4.42 obv. 4.

 

§4.37. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59430
Date: AS 5/ix/26
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.37.1.

obv. 1.   1(u) udu niga 10 barley-fed sheep,
  2.   1(diš) gukkal niga 1 barley-fed, fattailed sheep,
  3.   1(diš) sila4 niga 1 barley-fed lamb,
  4.   1(diš) maš2-gal niga 2(diš) munus2-gar3 1 barley-fed buck, 2 female kids,
  5.   1(u) 2(diš) sila4 12 lambs,
  6.   a-bi2-si2-im-ti of Abi-simti
  7.   mu-kux(DU) u4-sakar delivery for the Day of the Crescent,
  8.   ri-zi-dingir maškim Rizi-dingir as the requisitioner;
  9.   [n] udu niga lugal-ma2!-gur8-re ... barley-fed sheep of Lugal-magure
  10.   [...] maškim ... as the requisitioner;
  11.   [... d]en-lil2 ... Enlil,
rev. 1.   [...]˹d˺nin-lil2 ... Ninlil,
  2.   [...]-ib ...
  3.   [...] maškim ... as the requisitioner;
  4.   [ša3 mu]-kux(DU)-ra-ta from among the deliveries,
  5.   [u4] 2(u) 6(diš)-kam on the 26th day (of the month)
  6.   [ki] ab-ba-sa6-ga-ta ˹ba˺-zi from Abba-saga(’s account) withdrawn.
  blank space
  7.   ˹iti˺ ezem-mah Month: “Grand Festival.”
  8.   mu en-˹unu6˺-gal ˹dinanna˺ ba-hun Year: “Enunugal of Inanna was installed.”

 

§4.37.2. This text lists the sheep and goats contributed by two people, Queen Abi-simti and Lugal-magure, and later withdrawn as offerings from Abba-saga, a principal official of the Central Bureau.
Obv. 6: There has been a debate on whether Abi-simti was the queen of Šulgi or his successor and son Amar-Sin. It has also been suggested that she was first the queen of Amar-Sin and later of Šu-Sin (successor and probably brother of Amar-Sin). Most recently, F. Weierhäuser (2008: 105-109) has concluded that Abi-simti was the queen of King Amar-Sin.
Obv. 7: The expression u4 sakar may refer to the beginning or end of a month. The latter is probably meant here because this text dates to late in the month.
Obv. 8: The name ri-zi-dingir is rather rare and seems attested only in two other Ur III texts: one from Umma (BCT 2, 47 [no date] rev. 6) and the other from Drehem (TRU 302 [AS 1/v/20] rev. 1). In the latter text, he is identified as both a ra2-gaba and a maškim, and dealt with domestic animals as well.
Rev. 4: See comment on no. 4.36 rev. 3; also attested in no. 4.42 obv. 4.

 

§4.38. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59407
Date: AS 6/viii/29
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.38.1.

obv. 1.   1(diš) udu niga [...] 1 barley-fed sheep ...,
  2.   1(diš) maš2-gal ˹niga˺ [n]-˹kam us2˺ 1 barley-fed buck of ... grade,
  3.   1?(diš) udu niga 1? barley-fed sheep,
  4.   den-lil2 dnin-lil2 for Enlil and Ninlil;
  5.   1(diš) udu niga dnanna 1 barley-fed sheep (for) Nanna;
  6.   2(diš) udu niga saga us2 2 barley-fed sheep of 2nd grade,
  7.   3(diš) udu niga 3 barley-fed sheep,
  8.   siskur2 ki dsuen e2-u4-sakar as siskur-offering in the place of Sin, the Temple of Crescent;
  9.   1(diš) udu niga siskur2 dinanna ša3 e2-gal 1 barley-fed sheep as siskur-offering for Inanna in the palace,
  10.   ba-ba-an-še-en maškim Babanšen as the requisitioner;
  12.   [n] udu ... sheep,
  13.   [...] ...
rev. 1'.   [...] [mar-hu-ni lu2] ˹ha-ar-ši˺ki ... for Marhuni from Harši,
  2'.   1(diš) udu niga a2-ha-ba-tal lu2 hi-bi2-la-atki 1 barley-fed sheep for Ahab-atal from Hibilat,
  3'.   1(diš) maš2-gal niga i3-li2-dda-/gan lu2 eb-laki 1 barley-fed buck for Ilī-Dagan from Ebla,
  4'.   ur-šar-ru-gin7 sukkal maškim Ur-šarrugin, the messenger, as the requisitioner;
  5'.   iti u4 3(u) la2 1(diš) ba-zal on day 29 of the month,
  6'.   zi-ga ša3 tum-ma-al withdrawals within Tummal,
  7'.   ki en-dingir-mu in the place of En-dingirmu.
  8'.   iti šu-eš-ša Month: “Šu’ešša.”
  9'.   mu ša-aš-ru-umki ba-hul Year: “Šašrum was destroyed.”
left edge 1.   2(u) la2 1(diš) (Total:) 19.

 

§4.38.2. This text is a close parallel of another Drehem text, OIP 121, 470 (AS 6/viii/26), which dates three days earlier. Both texts list the animals withdrawn as offerings for the divine couple Enlil and Ninlil as well as the god Nanna, and as treat for foreign emissaries, who came to attend a festival in Tummal celebrated during the eighth month (Sharlach 2005, 20-22). Both document withdrawals of livestock from the so-called Tummal Bureau, where En-dingirmu functioned as an expending official. For other, similar expenditures made by En-dingirmu, see Sharlach 2005: 25-27.
Rev. 1': Restoration based on OIP 121, 470 rev. 2.
Rev. 7': For the formula ki PN, see no. 3.6 obv. 5.

 

§4.39. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59442
Date: AS 8/x/26
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.39.1.

obv. 1.   2(diš) udu 2 sheep of
  2.   li-ip-tum agar4-˹nigin2?˺ Liptum the overseer;
  3.   2(geš2) 5(diš) udu 125 sheep,
  4.   1(u) u8 10 ewes,
  5.   [n] maš2-gal ... ... bucks,
rev. 1'.   [...] ...
  2'.   [...] maškim ... requisitioner;
  3'.   [... unu]ki-ga ... of Uruk,
  4'.   ˹u4˺ 2(u) 6(diš)-kam on the 26th day (of the month),
  5'.   ki du11-ga-ta ba-zi withdrawn from Duga(’s account),
  6'.   giri3 ur-dba-ba6 dub-sar via Ur-Baba, the scribe.
  7'.   iti ezem-an-na Month: “An Festival.”
  8'.   mu en eriduki ˹ba˺-hun Year: “The en-priestess of Eridu was installed.”
left edge 1.   2(geš2) 3(u) 1(diš) [...] (Total:) 151 [...].

 

§4.39.2. This text records a number of sheep and goats withdrawn from Duga, a Central Bureau official, for undisclosed purposes.
Obv. 2: The title agar4-nigin2 is discussed by G. Marchesi (2001).

 

§4.40. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59426
Date: AS 9/x/9
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.40.1.

obv. 1.   ˹2(diš)? udu niga 4(diš)-kam? us2˺ 2? barley-fed sheep, of 4th grade,
  2.   ˹2(diš)? udu niga dinanna˺ 2? barley-fed sheep for Inanna,
  3.   ˹ki x x x lugal?-ki?-x˺ ...,
  4.   ˹n(diš) maš2? x ˺ [...] ...,
  5.   [x] UD x ˹lugal? ...,
  6.   ˹ša3 uri5ki-ma˺ ..., inside the city of Ur;
  7.   2(diš) udu ˹niga˺ 3(diš) [...] 2 barley-fed sheep, 3 ...,
  8.   2(diš) ˹udu niga den-ki˺ 2 barley-fed sheep for Enki,
  9.   1(diš) ˹udu niga ezem?-mah˺ 1 barley-fed sheep for “Grand Festival”
  10.   ša3 eriduki-ga in Eridu,
rev. 1.   a-tu ˹ra2˺-gaba ˹maškim˺ Atu, the courier, as the requisitioner;
  2.   2 (diš) ˹udu niga dinanna unuki˺ 2 barley-fed sheep for Inanna of Uruk,
  3.   a-hu!-ni sagi ˹maškim˺ Ahuni, the cupbearer, as the requisitioner;
  4.   iti u4 1(u) la2 1(diš) ˹ba-zal˺ on day 9 of the month,
  5.   ki na-lu5-ta ˹ba-zi˺ from Nalu(‘s account) withdrawn,
  6.   ˹ša3 uri5 ki-ma˺ inside the city of Ur.
    blank space  
  7.   iti ezem-an-na Month: “An Festival.”
  8.   mu en d˹nanna˺ kar-zi-da ba-hun Year: “The en-priestess of Nanna in Karzida was installed.”
seal 1.   ˹damar-dsuen˺ Amar-Suen,
  2.   lugal kal-ga strong king,
  3.   lugal uri5 ki-ma king of Ur,
  4.   lugal an-ub-da limmu2-ba king of four quarters;
  5.   ur-d˹šul-pa-e3˺ Ur-Šulpa’e,
  6.   dub-sar scribe,
  7.   [dumu] ur-d[ha-ia3] son of Ur-Haya,
  8.   ARAD2-zu2 your servant.

 

§4.40.2. This text lists sheep withdrawn for deities from Nalu.
Seal: Restoration of the seal is based on many parallels found in BDTNS and CDLI. One parallel, OIP 121, 597 (AS 9/x/12), is dated only three days later than our text here.

 

§4.41. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59434
Date: AS 9/x
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.41.1.

obv. 1.   3(diš) udu niga 3 barley-fed sheep,
  2.   sa2-du11 dsuen ur3-ra offering of Sin of the “roof,”
  3.   giri3 du-da-nu-um via Dudanum,
rev. 1.   ki lugal-iti-da-ta from Lugal-itida.
  2.   iti ezem-an-na Month: “An Festival.”
  3.   mu en dnanna ˹kar-zi-da˺ ba-hun Year: “The en-priestess of Nanna in Karzida was installed.”
seal 1.   [damar]-dsuen Amar-Suen,
  2.   nita kal-ga strong man,
  3.   lugal uri5 ki-ma king of Ur,
  4.   lugal an-ub-da-limmu2-ba-ka king of the four quarters
  ... ...

 

§4.41.2. This text notes the withdrawal of three sheep from Lugal-itida as an offering for the god Sin of the “roof.”
Obv. 2: A close parallel to this line appears in another Drehem text NYPL 349 = AOS 32 Bab 17 (SH 48/ xi/12) obv. 4 and a Umma text SANTAG 6, 38 (SH 41/v) obv. 8. The exact meaning of ur3-ra here escapes us. A. L. Oppenheim (1948: 166) translates it loosely as “chapel” based on the context of AOS 32 Bab 17. Sallaberger (1993: 207-208) further points out that this offering for Sin of the “roof ” could not be linked to any festival.

 

§4.42. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59445
Date: SS 1/ii/6
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.42.1.

obv. 1.   1(diš) amar maš-da3 munus 1 female gazelle fawn
  2.   tu-li2-id-dutu-ši for Tulid-Šamši,
  3.   be-li2-i3-li2 maškim Bēlī-ilī as the requisitioner;
  4.   ša3 mu-kux(DU)-ra-ta from among the delivery,
  5.   u4 6(diš)-kam on the 6th day (of the month),
rev. 1.   ki in-ta-e3-a-ta ba-zi from Inta’e’a(’s account) withdrawn,
  2.   ˹giri3˺ dnanna-ma-ba dub-sar via Nanna-maba, the scribe.
  3.   iti ses-da-gu7 Month: “Eating piglets.”
  4.   mu dšu-dsuen lugal Year: “Šu-Sin is king.”
left edge 1.   1(diš) (Total:) 1.

 

§4.42.2. This text records the withdrawal of one gazelle fawn from Inta’e’a, a principal official of the Central Bureau, for the sake of Tulid-Šamši. This Tulid-Šamši was certainly the same person as the one who carries the priestly title ereš-dingir dsuen in two parallel Drehem texts, OIP 121, 39 (AS 2/xi/19) obv. 4 and OIP 121, 276 (AS 5/ix/15) rev. 1.
Obv. 4: See comment on no. 4.36 rev. 3; the same formula also appears in no. 4.37 rev. 4.

 

§4.43. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59429
Date: SS 2/ix/29
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.43.1.

obv. 1.   [1(diš)] ˹udu˺ niga ˹saga us2˺ 1 barley-fed sheep of 2nd grade,
  2.   [1(diš)] udu 3(diš)-˹kam˺ us2 1 sheep of 3rd grade,
  3.   [1(diš)] udu ˹a˺ udu hur-sag niga 4-[kam] us2 1 hybrid mouflon, barley-fed, of 4th grade,
  4.   1(diš) maš2-gal a-˹dara4˺ niga ˹d˺en-lil2 1 barley-fed hybrid buck for Enlil;
  5.   1(diš) udu niga saga ˹us2˺ 1 barley-fed sheep of 2nd grade,
  6.   1(diš) udu 3(diš)-˹kam˺ us2 1 sheep of 3rd grade,
  7.   1(diš) ˹udu˺ a udu hur-˹sag˺ niga 3(diš) 1 barley-fed hybird mouflon, 3rd grade?,
rev. 1.   1(diš) ˹maš2˺-gal a-˹dara4˺ ˹niga˺ 1 barley-fed hybrid buck,
  2.   ˹dnin-lil2˺ for Ninlil;
  3.   1(diš) ˹udu˺ niga 3(diš)-kam us2 1 barley-fed sheep of 3rd grade,
  4.   1(diš) ˹udu˺ niga 4(diš)-kam us2 1 barley-fed sheep of 4th grade,
  5.   [n munus]˹aš2-gar3 x-ga?˺ ... female kids ...
  6.   [eš3] -˹eš3˺ ˹e2 u4-3(u)?-še3?˺ for the ešeš-celebration of the 30th day;
  7.   lugal ku4-˹ra˺ at the king’s entry;
  8.   iti u4 3(u) la2 1(diš) ba-zal on day 29 of the month,
  9.   ki ta2-˹hi˺-iš-a-tal-ta ba-zi withdrawn from Tahiš-atal(’s account).
  10.   ˹iti˺ ezem-mah Month: “Grand Festival.”
  11.   [mu ma2] dara3-abzu ba-ab-du8 Year: “The boat called ‘ibex of the Absu’ was caulked.”

 

§4.43.2. This text lists sheep and goats of different breeds and grades withdrawn from Tahiš-atal as offerings for the divine couple Enlil and Ninlil, and perhaps for the ešeš-festival as well. Tahiš-atal appears attested mostly as an official who expended livestock in Drehem (Hilgert & Reichel 2003: 76-77).
Obv. 1-3: Numbers restored based on obv. 5-7.
Obv. 3 and 7: See Steinkeller 1995: 50 for identification of udu hur-sag as mouflon. He (1989) suggests that a udu hur-sag describes the hybrid from a mouflon and a wild sheep. This hybrid animal also appears in no. 4.56 obv. 3.
Obv. 4 and Rev. 1: According to Steinkeller 1989, dara4 designates wild goats, and a-dara4 the hybrid from a domestic goat and a wild goat. Both terms appear attested in no. 4.56 obv. 1-2; dara4 additionally in no. 4.49 obv. 2.
Rev. 7: According to Sallaberger 1993, vol. 1: 30, offerings carrying the description lugal ku4-ra were actually made in the presence of the king.

 

§4.44. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59419
Date: SS 3/xii/29
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.44.1.

obv. 1.   [n] gu4 u2 7(diš) udu u2 ... grass-fed ox, 7 grass-fed sheep
  2.   ki pu3-zur8-i3-li2 at the place of Puzur-ilī,
  3.   1(diš) gu4 u2 5(diš) udu u2 1 grass-fed ox, 5 grass-fed sheep
  4.   ki nimgir-inim-gi-na at the place of Nimgir-inimgina,
  5.   1(diš) gu4 u2 5(diš) udu u2 1 grass-fed ox, 5 grass-fed sheep
  6.   ki ga-ba-tal at the place of Gab-atal,
  7.   1(diš) gu4 u2 5(diš) udu u2 1 grass-fed ox, 5 grass-fed sheep
  8.   ki ur-dba-ba6 at the place of Ur-Baba,
  9.   ˹5˺ udu u2 ki lu2-sa6-ga 5 grass-fed sheep at the place of Lu-saga,
  10.   ˹ugula˺ lugal-˹ku3˺-zu foreman: Lugal-kuzu;
  11.   1(diš) gu4 u2 5(diš) udu u2 1 grass-fed ox, 5 grass-fed sheep,
  12.   ˹ugula˺ nam-ha-ni foreman: Namhani;
  13.   [n] ˹udu˺ u2 ˹ki˺ i-zu-zu ... grass-fed sheep at the place of Izuzu,
rev. 1.   [ugula ta2-hi]-iš-a-tal foreman: Tahiš-atal;
  2.   [n gu4] u2 1(u) udu u2 ... grass-fed ox, 10 grass-fed sheep,
  3.   [ki ša3]-ku3-ge šabra at the place of Šakuge, the majordomo;
  4.   [n gu4] u2 siskur2 guru7 n grass-fed ox (as) siskur-offering for the Granary,
  5.   [ki] lu2-dnanna at the place of Lu-Nanna;
  6.   [n gu4] u2 siskur2 dnisaba n grass-fed ox (as) siskur-offering for Nisaba,
  7.   [ki] e2-a-ba-ni at the place of E’a-bani;
  8.   [... nig2]-˹dab5˺ ezem-dšu-dsuen ... taken during the month “Festival of Šu-Sin,”
  9.   [ša3] na-gab2-tum inside the Fattening House,
  10.   ˹ARAD2?˺-mu maškim ARAD-mu as the requisitioner;
  11.   [u4] 2(u) 9(diš)-kam ki du11-ga-ta ba-zi on the 29th day, withdrawn from Duga(’s account),
  12.   ˹giri3˺ hu-la-al dub-sar via Hulal, the scribe.
  13.   [iti] diri ezem-me-ki-gal2 us2-sa The extra month following: “Mekigal Festival.”
  14.   [mu] si-ma-num2 ki ba-hul Year: “Simanum was destroyed.”

 

§4.44.2. This is a list of oxen and sheep withdrawn from Duga, an administrator of the Central Bureau, for the celebration of a festival dedicated to King Šu-Sin, which took place in the Fattening House. It is closely parallel to another Drehem text, CT 32, 12 BM 103436, which is dated exactly one month earlier. According to Sallaberger 1993, vol. 1: 152, the formulae, ki PN and ugula PN, in such a context suggest that meat from the sheep and oxen would be served to the people named and their subordinates. The celebration in our text also included two siskur-offerings for the Granary (rev. 4) and the goddess Nisaba (rev. 6).
Rev. 1: Restoration of name based on our search in BDTNS and CDLI, which showed that only this name ends with -iš-a-tal.
Rev. 3: Restoration of name based on the parallel in CT 32, 12 BM 103436 rev. i 6.
Rev. 13: Cohen (1993: 133-136) reviews the research of the month name diri ezem-me-ki-gal2, which was introduced in the year of SS 3 in order to synchronize the Drehem calendar with the Ur calendar.

 

§4.45. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59438
Date: SS 4/v/26
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.45.1.

obv. 1.   1(diš) gu4 ˹mu˺-[...] 1 ox ...,
  2.   8(diš) u8 [...] 8 ewes ...,
  3.   mu aga3-us2 a-˹tu5˺-[a-ka] for the soldiers who entered
  4.   e2-gal-la ku4-[ra-ne-še3] the palace for the “lustration” ceremony;
  5.   8(diš) u8 ˹u2˺ 8 grass-fed ewes
  6.   mu aga3-us2-e-ne-še3 for soldiers;
  7.   e2-muhaldim (to) the Kitchen;
rev. 1.   dnanna-kam sukkal maškim Nanna-kam, the messenger, as the requisitioner;
  2.   u4 2(u) 6(diš)-kam on the 26th day (of the month),
  3.   ki ur-ku3-nun-na-ta ba-zi from Ur-kununa(’s account) withdrawn,
  4.   giri3 dnanna-ma-ba dub-sar via Nanna-maba the scribe.
  5.   iti ki-siki-dnin-a-˹zu˺ Month: “Wool-workers of Ninazu.”
  6.   mu dšu-d˹suen˺ lugal uri5[ki-ma-ke4] bad3 mar-tu [mu-ri-iq]-ti-id-˹ni˺-im mu-[du3] Year: “Šu-Sin, king of Ur, built the western wall ‘Muriq-tidnim’.”
left edge 1.   1(diš) gu4 1(u) 6(diš) udu (Total:) 1 ox, 16 sheep.

 

§4.45.2. This text documents seventeen oxen and ewes withdrawn from Ur-kununna to the Kitchen for the consumption of soldiers. Ur-kununa appears also in no. 4.62, where he expended twenty-two slaughtered sheep and goats.
Obv. 3-4: Restoration based on a parallel found in more than two dozen Drehem texts (e.g., Sallaberger 1993 vol. 1: 67 n. 302). Most recently, B. Lafont (2009: §7.5) has suggested that the soldiers fed through the Kitchen in Drehem may have functioned as royal guards who escorted the king to various locations, often to attend cultic events. Citing L. Allred, Lafont estimates the number of these guards at several hundred. The term aga3-us2 a-tu5-a probably refers to a particular group of soldiers accompanying the king for the “lustration” ceremony.

 

§4.46. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59428
Date: SS 4/ix/1
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.46.1.

obv. 1.   3(diš) udu niga 3 barley-fed sheep,
  2.   sa2-du11 geme2-den-lil2-la2 dumu-˹munus?˺ en-na offering for Geme-Enlila, daughter of the en-priest(ess),
  3.   [u4] 1(diš)-[kam] on the 1st day (of the month),
  4.   ki na-lu5-˹ta˺ from Nalu(‘s account)
rev. 1.   ba-zi withdrawn,
  2.   ša3 nibruki inside the city of Nippur,
  3.   giri3 lu2-dnin-šubur dub-sar via Lu-Ninšubur, the scribe.
  4.   iti ezem-dšu-dsuen Month: “Festival of Šu-Sin.”
  5.   mu dšu-dsuen lugal-e bad3 mar-tu mu-ri-iq-ti-id-ni-im mu-du3 Year: “King Šu-Sin built the western wall ‘Muriq-tidnim'.”
left edge 1.   3(diš) (Total:) 3.

 

§4.46.2. This text records the withdrawal from Nalu of three sheep as a sadu-offering for a woman named Geme-Enlila.
Obv. 2: Scratches are visible that may well be part of the MUNUS sign. We may understand en-na as either a personal name (cf. the Umma text Nisaba 3/1, 204 [month ii/26] obv. 12) or the term referring to a type of priest/priestess with an genitive suffix. Recently, Weiershäuser (2008: 164-165) has concluded that there were two royal women named Geme-Enlila. One was the queen of King Ibbi-Sin, who is first attested in SS 9 and whose ancestry remains unknown; the other one was a sister of King Ibbi-Sin and served as a lukur-priestess of the god Ninurta. We have yet to study whether the Geme-Enlila attested here was one of the two or a different woman with the same name.

 

§4.47. Withdrawal of livestock
Museum No.: E59404
Date: SS 6/iv/28
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.47.1.

obv. 1.   1(diš) ˹udu niga˺ bara2-an-na 1 barley-fed sheep for the dais of An,
  2.   2(diš) udu niga 3(diš)-kam us2 3(diš) ˹udu niga˺ ˹4˺(diš)-kam us2 2 barley-fed sheep of 3rd grade, 3 barley-fed sheep of 4th grade
  3.   dnanna for Nanna,
  4.   1(diš) maš2-gal ˹niga˺ 4(diš)-kam us2 dub-la2-mah 1 barley-fed buck of 4th grade for the Great Gate Tower
  5.   x-x-a-bala ...,
  6.   2(diš) udu niga 2(diš) maš2-gal niga gu4-e us2-sa 2 barley-fed sheep, 2 barley-fed bucks “following oxen”
  7.   ezem-an-na (in the month) “An Festival”;
  8.   2(diš) udu niga 4(diš)-kam us2 du6-ur3 2 barley-fed sheep of 4th grade for the “Mound of the Roof,”
  9.   2(diš) udu niga ˹3(diš)-kam us2˺ 2(diš) udu niga [n-kam] us2 2 barley-fed sheep of 3rd grade, 2 barley-fed sheep of ...th grade
  10.   d˹nun-gal˺ for Nungal,
  11.   1(diš) udu niga dub-˹la2˺-mah 1 barley-fed sheep for the Great Gate Tower,
  12.   1(diš) udu [niga] [gu4-e us2]-˹sa˺ AN-dur 1 barley-fed sheep “following oxen” for ANdur,
  13.   1(diš) udu [niga] [...] d˹šul˺-gi TUR [...] 1 barley-fed sheep ... for Šulgi ...,
  14.   [...]-an-da-an-da? ... for ...,
  15.   [...] dnin-gal [...] ... for Ningal? ...,
  16.   [...] [gu4]-˹e˺ us2-sa dnin-˹uri5˺ki ... (barley-fed sheep) “following oxen” for Ninuri,
  17.   [...] dšu-suen-ki-ag2-[...] ... Šu-Sin-ki’ag...,
  18.   [...] ˹d˺ [...] ... for (the deity) ...,
rev. 1'.   1(diš) ˹udu˺ [niga ...]-˹kal˺-la 1 barley-fed sheep for ...-kala,
  2'.   2(diš) ˹udu niga˺ [...] [d]nin-ku3-nun-˹na˺ 2 barley-fed sheep ... for Ninkununa,
  3'.   2(diš) udu niga 2(diš)-˹kam us2˺ dgu-la 2 barley-fed sheep of 2nd grade for Gula,
  4'.   1(diš) udu niga 1(diš) sila4 dnin-e2-gal 1 barley-fed sheep (and) 1 lamb for Ninegal;
  5'.   giri3 dsuen-a-bu-šu sagi via the cup-bearer Sin-abušu,
  6'.   u4 2(u) 8(diš)-kam on the 28th day (of the month),
  7'.   ki [a-ba]-den-lil2-gin7-ta ba-zi withdrawn from Aba-Enlilgin(’s account),
  8'.   ˹ša3˺ ˹uri5˺ki-ma inside the city of Ur,
  9'.   ˹giri3˺ [ur]-dšul-gi-ra šar2-ra-ab-du via Ur-Šulgi the šarabdu.
  10'.   iti u5-bi2-gu7 Month: “Eating ubi(-birds).”
  11'.   mu dšu-dsuen lugal uri5ki-ma-ke4 na-ru2-a-mah den-lil2 dnin-lil2-ra mu-ne-du3 Year: “Šu-Sin, king of Ur, erected the grand-stele for Enlil (and) Ninlil.
left edge 1.   4(u) (Total:) 40.

 

§4.47.2. This text lists forty sheep and goats withdrawn from Aba-Enlilgin as offerings for a number of deities in the capital city of Ur. It is closely parallel to two other Drehem texts, BPOA 6, 111 (IS 2/x/11) and Syracuse 359 (day 29). Aba-Enlilgin actively expended livestock as offering for deities, especially those in Ur and Nippur. Our search of his name in BDTNS and CDLI showed that his activities span over about three decades from the late reign of King Šulgi to the beginning years of King Ibbi-Sin.
Obv. 4, 11: Dublamah was part of the Ekišnugal temple complex dedicated to the god Nanna at Ur and might have comprised both the portico and the adjacent terrace (Steinkeller 1985b: 39 n. 1, with references).
Obv. 6, 12, 16: For meaning of gu4-e us2-sa, see comment on no. 4.7 obv. 1.
Obv. 8: The exact meaning of du6-ur3, perhaps “Mound of the Roof,” eludes us. In Drehem texts it tends to appear with deities as a beneficiary of livestock offerings and may refer to some ritualistic location. Outside the Drehem corpus, it has a possible attestation only in a Girsu text MVN 2, 216 (month ii/7) obv. 2: lugal-nam2-mah du6-ur3!-še3 gen-na.
Rev. 7': Restoration of the personal name is based on many parallels found through a seach in BDTNS and CDLI, such as the two texts listed above.
Rev. 9': Parallels to this line appear in four other Drehem texts: PDT 1, 617 (SS 8/i/29) rev. 2; Kyoto 46 (SS 9/i/7) rev. 5; BJRL 64, 113 75 (SS 9/x/10) rev. 3; MVN 8, 204 (SS 9/x/13) rev. 3. J.-P. Grégoire (1970: 147) points out that the term šarabdu often appears attested in Ur III texts and refers to an administrative position subordinate to a šabra, but the exact function of this position remains difficult to define. Steinkeller (1981: 87) analyzes the term as *sar2-a i3-b-du, “the one who walks midst the yield,” and proposes that the original function of this office was “to prepare the estimates of the expenses connected with the cultivation of fields and to account for the harvest.”

 

§4.48. Receipt of slaughtered livestock
Museum No.: E59465
Date: SS 4/ii/21
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.48.1.

obv. 1.   1(u) udu 10 sheep,
  2.   1(diš) sila4 1 lamb,
  3.   ba-uš2 u4 2(u) 1(diš)-kam slaughtered on the 21st day (of the month),
  4.   ki ur-dnanna-ta from Ur-Nanna,
rev. 1.   [dšul-gi]-˹iri˺-mu Šulgi-irimu
  2.   šu ˹ba-ti˺ received.
  3.   iti ses-da-gu7 Month: “Eating piglets.”
  4.   mu us2-sa si-ma-num2 ki ba-hul Year after: “Simanum was destroyed.”
left edge 1.   1(u) 1(diš) udu (Total:) 11 sheep.

 

§4.48.2. This text records the carcasses of eleven sheep Šulgi-irimu received from Ur-Nanna.

 

§4.49. Receipt of slaughtered livestock
Museum No.: E59464
Date: SH 44/iii/4
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.49.1.

obv. 1. 1(diš) [...] 1 ...,
2. 1(diš) maš2 ˹dara4˺ 1 wild goat kid,
3. 1(diš) sila4 ga 1 suckling lamb,
4. ba-uš2 u4 4(diš)-kam slaughtered on the 4th day (of the month);
rev. 1. ki na-lu5-ta from Nalu,
2. ur-nigargar Ur-nigar
3. šu ba-ti received.
4. iti u5-bi2-gu7 Month: “Eating ubi-(birds).”
5. mu si-mu-ru-[umki] a-ra2 1(u) la2 1(diš)-[kam] ba-˹hul˺ Year: “Simurum was destroyed for the 9th time.”

 

§4.49.2. This text notes the carcasses of three sheep and goats Ur-nigar received from Nalu.
Obv. 2: Further information on dara4 available in the comment on no. 4.43 obv. 4 and rev. 1; also attested in no. 4.56 obv. 1-2.

 

§4.50. Receipt of slaughtered livestock
Museum No.: E59446
Date: SH 44/iv/20
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.50.1.

obv.  1.   1(diš) amar gu4 ga 1 suckling calf,
  2.   1(diš) udu niga ˹saga us2˺ 1 barley-fed sheep of 2nd grade,
  3.   1(diš) udu [...] 1 sheep,
  4.   1(diš) [...] 1 ...,
  5.   1(diš) [...] 1 ...,
  6.   1(diš) sila4 [...] 1 lamb ...,
rev.  1.   ba-uš2 u4 1(u) [n-kam] slaughtered, on the 10+nth day (of the month);
  2.   ˹ki˺ a-hu-ni-[ta] from Ahuni,
  3.   ur-nigar˹gar˺ Ur-nigar
  4.   šu ba-ti received.
  5.   iti ki-siki-d˹nin-a-zu˺ min-[kam] Month: “Wool-workers of Ninazu”-the 2nd.
  6.   mu si-mu-ru-umki ˹lu˺-lu-buki a-ra2 1(u) la2 1(diš)-kam ba-hul Year: “Simurum (and) Lulubu were destroyed for the 9th time.”

 

§4.50.2. This text records the carcasses of animals received by Ur-nigar from Ahuni. In addition to slaughtered livestock, Ahuni more regularly transferred oxen to Nasa, a major official of the Central Bureau (Hilgert 1998: 16).

 

§4.51. Receipt of slaughtered livestock
Museum No.: E59460
Date: SH 44/iv/20
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.51.1.

obv.  1.   1(diš) udu 1 sheep
  2.   ba-uš2 slaughtered,
  3.   u4 2(u)-kam on the 20th day (of the month);
  4.   ki na-lu5-˹ta˺ from Nalu,
rev. 1.   ur-nigargar Ur-nigar
  2.   šu ba-ti received.
  3.   iti ki-siki-dnin-a-zu min-kam Month: “Wool-workers of Ninazu”-the 2nd.
  4.   mu si-mu-ru-umki lu-lu-buki a-˹ra2˺ 1(u) la2 1(diš)-kam-aš ba-[hul] Year: “Simurum (and) Lulubu were destroyed for the 9th time.”

 

§4.51.2. This text notes one slaughtered sheep received by Ur-nigar from Nalu, an administrator of the Central Bureau.

 

§4.52. Receipt of slaughtered livestock
Museum No.: E59458
Date: SH 46/ii/11
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.52.1.

obv.  1.   3(diš) ˹udu˺ 3 sheep,
  2.   1(diš) ˹ud5˺ 1 female goat,
  3.   1(diš) ˹sila4˺ 1 lamb,
  4.   2(diš) ˹kir11˺ 1 female lamb,
  5.   1(diš) sila4 ˹ga˺ 1 suckling lamb,
rev.  1.   ba-uš2 slaughtered,
  2.   u4 1(u) 1(diš)-kam on the 11th day (of the month);
  3.   ki na-lu5-ta from Nalu,
  4.   ur-nigargar Ur-nigar
  5.   šu ba-ti received.
  6.   iti ses-da-gu7 Month: “Eating piglets.”
  7.   mu ˹ki-maški˺ ba-hul Year: “Kimaš was destroyed.”

 

§4.52.2. This text records the carcasses of seven sheep and goats received by Ur-nigar from Nalu.

 

§4.53. Receipt of slaughtered livestock
Museum No.: E59467
Date: SH 46/iv/12
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.53.1.

obv.  1.   1(diš) ˹sila4˺ 1 lamb,
  2.   1(diš) ˹kir11˺ 1 female lamb,
  3.   1(diš) [...] ˹ga˺ 1 suckling ...,
  4.   ba-uš2 u4 1(u) 2(diš)-kam slaughtered, on the 12th day (of the month);
rev.  1.   ˹ki na-lu5˺-ta from Nalu,
  2.   [ur-nigar]˹gar˺ Ur-nigar
  3.   [šu] ˹ba˺-ti received.
  4.   ˹iti˺ ki-siki-˹dnin-a-zu˺ Month: “Wool-workers of Ninazu.”
  5.   mu ˹ki-maški hu-ur5-tiki˺ [ba-hul] Year: “Kimaš (and) Hurti were destroyed.”

 

§4.53.2. This text records the carcasses of three domestic animals received by Ur-nigar from Nalu.

 

§4.54. Receipt of slaughtered livestock
Museum No.: E59439
Date: SH 46/v/29
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.54.1.

obv.  1.   1(diš) amar gu4 ga 1 suckling calf,
  2.   1(diš) u8 ge6 ša-ru-um-mi-um 1 black Šarumiyum ewe,
  3.   1(diš) maš2-gal šimašgi2ki 1 Šimaškian buck,
  4.   1(diš) sila4 ˹šimašgi2˺ki 1 Šimaškian lamb,
  5.   1(diš) kir11 šimašgi2ki 1 Šimaškian female lamb,
  6.   1(diš) sila4 1 lamb,
rev.  1.   1(diš) kir11 1 female lamb,
  2.   ba-uš2 u4 3(u) la2 1(diš)-kam slaughtered, on the 29th day (of the month);
  3.   ki lu2-dingir-˹ra˺-ta from Lu-dingira,
  4.   ur-nigargar Ur-nigar
  5.   ˹šu ba-ti˺ received.
  6.   ˹iti˺ ˹ezem-dnin-a˺-zu Month: “Ninazu Festival.”
  7.   mu ˹ki-maški˺ u3 hu-ur5-ti˹ki˺ ba-hul Year: “Kimaš and Hurti were destroyed.”

 

§4.54.2. This text records the carcasses of seven sheep and goats received by Ur-nigar from Lu-dingira, a branch manager of the Fattening House. Both of them appear in the same capacities in no. 4.56 and dozens of other parallels (e.g., Hilgert 1998: 431; Hilgert & Reichel 2003: 535), all of which date to the end of the reign of King Šulgi and early years of King Amar-Sin. Since he expended sheep, goats, and gazelles, this Lu-dingira in our text and no. 4.56 was likely a son of Inim-Šara instead of Lu-dingira a son of Ir-hula, who often dealt with donkeys, wild boars, stags, and bears (Maeda 1989: 90-91; Sigrist 1992: 324-326). We can identify the Lu-dingira here as one of the two branch managers of the Fattening House in Drehem, and he probably stayed in office until the year of AS 3 (Hilgert & Reichel 2003: 43-49).
Obv. 2: The term ša-ru-um-mi-um is a gentilic and derives from the name of an unlocated place (Steinkeller 1995, 53).
Obv. 3-5: For identification of LU.SU.(A)ki as Šimaški, see comments on no. 4.36 rev. 1.

 

§4.55. Receipt of slaughtered livestock
Museum No.: E59462
Date: SH 47/i/7
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.55.1.

obv.  1.   3(diš) ˹udu˺ 3 sheep,
  2.   1(diš) maš2-˹gal˺ 1 buck,
  3.   1(diš) ud5 1 female goat,
  4.   ba-uš2 u4 7(diš)-kam slaughtered, on the 7th day (of the month);
  5.   ki na-lu5-ta from Nalu,
rev.  1.   ur-nigargar Urnigar
  2.   šu ba-ti received.
  3.   iti maš-da3-gu7 Month: “Gazelle eating.”
  4.   mu us2-sa ki-maški u3 hu-ur5-tiki ba-hul Year after: “Kimaš and Hurti were destroyed.”

 

§4.55.2. This text records the carcasses of five sheep and goats Ur-nigar received from Nalu.

 

§4.56. Receipt of slaughtered livestock
Museum No.: E59411
Date: SH 47/i/16
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.56.1.

obv.  1.   1(diš) maš2 a-dara4 1 hybrid goat,
  2.   4(diš) ud5 ˹dara4˺ 4 female wild goats,
  3.   1(diš) sila4 ga a udu ˹hur-sag˺ 1 suckling lamb of a hybrid mouflon,
  4.   3(diš) maš-da3 3 gazelles,
  5.   1(diš) ˹amar˺ maš-da3 1 gazelle fawn,
  6.   ba-uš2 u4 1(u) 6(diš)-kam slaughtered, on the 16th day (of the month);
rev.  1.   ki lu2-dingir-ra-ta from Lu-dingira,
  2.   ur-nigargar Ur-nigar
  3.   šu ba-ti received.
  4.   iti maš-da3-gu7 Month: “Gazelle eating.”
  5.   mu us2-sa ki-maški u3 hu-ur5-tiki ba-[hul] Year after: “Kimaš and Hurti were destroyed.”

 

§4.56.2. This text records the carcasses of ten domestic animals received by Ur-nigar from Lu-dingira, whom we identify as a branch manager of the Fattening House. Both are discussed in comments on no. 4.54.
Obv. 1-2: For meaning of dara4 and a-dara4, see comment on no. 4.43 obv. 4 and rev. 1; dara4 is also attested in no. 4.49 obv. 2.
Obv. 3: For identification of a udu hur-sag, see comment on no. 4.43 obv. 3 and 7.

 

§4.57. Receipt of slaughtered livestock
Museum No.: E59449
Date: AS 2/x/9
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.57.1.

obv.  1.   1(diš) ˹dusu2 nita2˺ 1 male equid,
  2.   ba-uš2 u4 1(u) la2 1(diš)-kam slaughtered, on the 9th day (of the month);
  3.   ki šu-didim-ta from Šu-Idim,
  4.   ur-nigargar Ur-nigar
  5.   ˹šu˺ ba-ti received.
rev.  1.   ˹iti ezem-an-na˺ Month: “An Festival.”
  2.   ˹mu damar-dsuen lugal-e ur-bi2-lumki mu-hul˺ Year: “King Amar-Sin destroyed Urbilum.”

 

§4.57.2. This text records the carcass of a slaughtered equid received by Ur-nigar from Šu-Idim.

 

§4.58. Receipt of slaughtered livestock
Museum No.: E59455
Date: AS 4/xii/12
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.58.1.

obv.  1.   1(diš) maš2 babbar ša3 wa-da-al-tum 1 white kid inside wadaltum,
  2.   4(diš) udu 4 sheep,
  3.   2(diš) u8 2 ewes,
  4.   2(diš) ud5 2 female goats,
  5.   3(diš) sila4 3 lambs,
  6.   2(diš) sila4 ga 2 suckling lambs,
rev.  1.   ba-uš2 u4 1(u) 2(diš)-kam slaughtered, on the 12th day (of the month);
  2.   ki dšul-gi-a-a-mu-ta from Šulgi-ayamu,
  3.   dšul-gi-iri-mu Šulgi-irimu
  4.   šu ba-ti received.
  5.   iti še-sag11-ku5 Month: “Harvest.”
  6.   mu en-˹mah-gal-an-na˺ en d˹nanna˺ [ba-hun] Year: “Enmahgal-ana the en-priestess of Nanna was installed.”
left edge 1.   1(u) 4(diš) udu (Total:) 14 sheep.

 

§4.58.2. This text records the receipt of the carcasses of fourteen sheep and goats from Šulgi-ayamu by Šulgi-irimu. The former was a senior manager of the Fattening House in Drehem, while the latter a well attested recipient of slaughtered livestock.
Obv. 1: Sigrist (1992: 71) has proposed that wa-da-altum may refer to the place where animals gave birth.

 

§4.59. Receipt of slaughtered livestock
Museum No.: E59473
Date: AS 8/iv/9
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.59.1.

obv.  1.   1(diš) udu 1 sheep,
  2.   ba-uš2 slaughtered,
  3.   u4 1(u) la2 1(diš)-˹kam˺ on the 9th day (of the month);
  4.   ki na-lu5-ta from Nalu,
rev.  1.   dšul-gi-iri-mu Šulgi-irimu
  2.   šu ba-ti received.
  3.   iti ki-siki-dnin-a-zu Month: “Wool-workers of Ninazu.”
  4.   mu en eriduki ba-hun Year: “The en-priestess of Eridu was installed.”

 

§4.59.2. This text records the carcass of one sheep received by Šugi-irimu from Nalu.

 

§4.60. Receipt of slaughtered livestock
Museum No.: E59466
Date: SS 2/x/8
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.60.1.

obv.  1.   1(diš) sila4 ga 1 suckling lamb,
  2.   ba-uš2 slaughtered,
  3.   u4 8(diš)-[kam] on the 8th day (of the month);
  4.   ki kur-bi-˹la˺-ak-ta from Kurbilak,
rev.  1.   dšul-gi-iri-mu Šulgi-irimu
  2.   šu ba-ti received.
  3.   iti ezem-an-na Month: “An Festival.”
  4.   mu ma2 den-ki ba-dim2 Year: “The boat of Enki was made.”

 

§4.60.2. This text records the carcass of one lamb received by Šulgi-irimu from Kur-bilak.

 

§4.61. Receipt of slaughtered livestock
Museum No.: E59456
Date: SS 4/xi/17
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.61.1.

obv.  1.   1(diš) ˹sila4˺ 1 lamb,
  2.   1(diš) maš2-gal 1 buck,
  3.   1(diš) ud5 1 female goat,
  4.   ba-uš2 u4 1(u) 7(diš)-kam slaughtered, on the 17th day (of the month);
  5.   ki na-lu5-ta from Nalu,
rev. 1.   dšul-gi-iri-mu Šulgi-irimu
  2.   šu ba-ti received.
  3.   iti ezem-an-na Month: “An Festival.”
  4.   mu dšu-dsuen lugal-˹ke4˺ uri5ki-˹ma˺ bad3 mar-[tu mu-ri]-iq-ti-[id-ni-im mu-du3] Year: “Šu-Sin, king of Ur, built the western wall ‘Muriq-tidnim’.”
left edge 1.   3(diš) (Total:) 3.

 

§4.61.2. This text records the receipt of the carcasses of three sheep and goats from Nalu by Šulgi-irimu.

 

§4.62. Receipt of slaughtered livestock
Museum No.: E59432
Date: SS 9/xi/5
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.62.1.

obv.  1.   5(diš) udu u2 5 grass-fed sheep,
  2.   7(diš) maš2-gal u2 7 grass-fed bucks,
  3.   8(diš) sila4 8 lambs,
  4.   2(diš) maš2 2 kids,
  5.   ba-uš2 u4 5(diš)-kam slaughtered, on the 5th day (of the month);
  6.   ki ur-ku3-nun-na-ta from Ur-kununa,
  7.   dšul-gi-iri-mu Šulgi-irimu
rev.  1.   šu ba-ti received,
  2.   ˹giri3˺ dnanna-ma-ba via Nanna-maba
  3.   ˹u3 lu2˺-ša-lim and Lu-šalim.
  4.   [iti] ˹ezem˺-an-na Month: “An Festival.”
  5.   mu dšu-˹dsuen˺ lugal uri5ki-ma-ke4 e2 dšara2 ummaki-ka mu-du3 Year: “Šu-Sin, king of Ur, built the house of Šara in Umma.”
left edge 1.   2(u) 2(diš) udu (Total:) 22 sheep.

 

§4.62.2. This text records twenty-two slaughtered sheep and goats Šulgi-irimu received from Ur-kununa, who expended seventeen oxen and ewes in no. 4.45.

 

§4.63. Withdrawal of slaughtered livestock
Museum No.: E59472
Date: SH 42/AS 6/v
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.63.1.

obv.  1.   1(diš) gu4 ba-uš2 1 ox, slaughtered,
  2.   giri3 dna-ru2-a-e3 via Naru’a’e,
  3.   iti šu-numun month: “Sowing”;
  4.   1(diš) ba-uš2 1(ox), slaughtered,
rev.  1.   giri3 dnin-gir2-su-ka-i3-sa6 via Ningirsuka-isa;
  2.   zi-ga withdrawals.
  3.   iti munu4-gu7 Month: “Malt eating.”
  4.   mu ša-aš-ru-umki ba-hul Year: “Šašrum was destroyed.”

 

§4.63.2. This text notes the withdrawal of two slaughtered oxen via two people, Naru’a’e and Ningirsuka-isa.

 

§4.64. Receipt of bala-deliveries
Museum No.: E59414
Date: IS 2/xii/13
Provenience: Drehem

 

§4.64.1.

obv.    broken ...
rev.  1.   giri3 šu-eš18-dar sagi via Šu-ešdar, the cupbearer,
  2.   bala u4 1(u) 3(diš)-kam bala-deliveries on the 13th day (of the month).
  3.   iti ezem-me-ki-gal2 Month: “Mekigal Festival.”
  4.   mu en dinanna unuki-ga maš2-[e] i3-pa3 Year: “The en-priest of Inanna in Uruk was chosen by means of extispicy.”
seal  1.   di-bi2-dsuen Ibbi-Sin,
  2.   lugal kal-ga strong king,
  3.   šu-eš18-dar Šu-ešdar,
  4.   sagi cup-bearer,
  5.   dumu [...]-du son of ... .

 

§4.64.2. This may be a receipt of a bala-delivery, but details of the delivery have been lost.
Rev. 1: Our search in BDTNS and CDLI did not find the cupbearer Šu-ešdar attested elsewhere.

 

§5.1. Receipt of flour as wage
Museum No.: E53740
Date: SH 42/AS 6/xii
Provenience: Unknown

 

§5.1.1.

obv.  1.   1(aš) 3(barig) dabin gur lugal 1 gur 3 barig of barley flour, royal (measure),
  2.   a2 1(diš) guruš 5 sila3-ta wage of 1 laborer at 5 sila3 (per day),
  3.   guruš-bi 1(geš2) 3(u) 6(diš) u4 1-še3 (equivalent to) 96 workers (working) 1 day;
  4.   a2 lu2 hun-ga2 wages of hired labor,
  5.   ki ur-sa6-ga-ta from Ur-saga,
rev.  1.   šu-eš18-dar šu ba-ti Šu-ešdar received.
      blank space
  2.   iti ezem-me-ki-gal2 Month: “Mekigal Festival.”
  3.   mu ša-aš-ruki ba-hul Year: “Šašru was destroyed.”

 

§5.1.2. This text records barley received from Ur-saga by Šu-ešdar as the wage for hired workers.
Obv. 2: According to Maekawa 1989: 48, the daily wage of a hired worker in Ur III Umma ranged from five to eight quarts of barley, with six quarts being the standard. Such a wage more than doubled the “ration” received by workers when they worked for the government as part of their bala-obligation (cf. comment on no. 3.6 obv. 1).

 

§5.2. Withdrawal of work-days
Museum No.: E59433
Date: SH 46
Provenience: Unknown

 

§5.2.1.

obv.  1.   3(geš2) a2 geme2 u4 1(diš)-še3 180 work-days, female workers,
  2.   tug2-ba-bi da6-da6-de3 to weave garments (to be distributed as) their “rations”,
  3.   šu-ba-ra “released”;
  4.   ki šu-diškur-ta from Šu-Iškur(’s account)
rev.  1.   ba-zi withdrawn.
  blank space
  2.   mu ki-maški ba-˹hul˺ Year: “Kimaš was destroyed.”

 

§5.2.2. This tablet is a duplicate of of an unpublished text recently sold in New Orleans (P423737). It records the expenditure of 180 work-days by female workers to weave garments, which would be distributed as “ration” perhaps to the workers themselves.
Obv. 1: The formula x guruš/geme2 u4 y-še3 is discussed in the comment on obv. 1 of no. 3.2. The term a2 refers to the expected performance or workload of a worker (Englund 1988: 177 n. 48 with previous literature). A fulltime worker is meant when no fractional number precedes a2.
Obv. 2: In addition to barley “rations” (see nos. 3.6-7), workers also received tug2-ba, garment “rations,” from the Ur III state (Waetzoldt 1972: 84-88). The denominative suffix -bi after tug2-ba possibly refers to the female workers themselves.
Obv. 3: The precise meaning of šu-ba-ra here escapes us. This expression appears associated not only with people (e.g., BBVO 11, 271, 6N-T190+ [date broken] obv. iii 6; UTI 3, 2256 [AS 5/iii]; SAT 2, 64 [SH 33/ viii] obv. 4), but also with domestic animals (PDT 1, 576 [SS 3/xi/21] obv. 2; SAKF 74 [SH 46] obv. 2; SET 63 [AS 10/x/10] obv. ii 18), reeds (NRVN 1, 252 [no date]), and barley (BPOA 2, 1827 [no date]).

 

§5.3. Withdrawal of lard
Museum No.: E59448
Date: SH 48
Provenience: Unknown

 

§5.3.1.

obv.  1.   1(ban2) i3-šah2 1 ban2 of lard;
  2.   u4 amar-du3-ta ba-ra-du8-a the day they were released from (feeding) calves,
  3.   ˹geme2˺-[e] ba-ab-˹šeš4˺ the female workers anointed themselves with it;
  4.   ˹ki˺ lu2-˹gi-na-ta˺ from Lugina(’s account)
rev.  1.   ba-[zi] withdrawn.
  blank space
  2.   mu ha-˹ar˺-[ši]˹ki˺ ba-hul Year: “Harši was destroyed.”

 

§5.3.2. This text notes the withdrawal of lard.
Obv. 2: The meaning of amar-du3 remains elusive. A similar form, amar du3-a, appears in all major Ur III corpora and seems to designate some type of calf, as it is associated with cows (eg., the Drehem text BE 3/1, 79 [IS 8/xii] obv. 1; the Umma text BPOA 1, 972 [AS 2] obv. 1) or barley intended as fodder (eg., two Girsu texts SAT 1, 32 [SH 34/vii] obv. 1-2; SAT 1, 4 [SH 40/ vii] obv. 1-2). The ‘release’ from amar-du3 is suggestive of an activity in their care such as feeding.

 

§5.4. Distribution of barley as šuku
Museum No.: E59443
Date: SS 2/iv
Provenience: Unknown

 

§5.4.1.

obv.  1.   9(aš) ˹še˺ gur 9 gur of barley,
  2.   še šuku ˹a˺-na-ti barley allotment of Anati;
  3.   2(aš) [še gur] 2 gur of barley,
  4.   d˹nun˺-[...] of Nun-... ;
rev.  1.   šu+nigin2 1(u) 1(aš) [še gur] total: 11 gur of barley,
  2.   še šuku-˹ra˺ ˹a-ša3˺ [...]-GAG UD GUR8 barley allotments from the field ....
  3.   iti ki-siki-dnin-a-zu Month: “Wool-workers of Ninazu.”
  4.   mu ma2 dara3-abzu denki ba-du8 Year: “The boat ‘ibex of the Absu-Enki’ was caulked.”

 

§5.4.2. This text lists the amount of barley allocated to two individuals as their šuku.
Obv. 2: The term šuku designates either the land people received in exchange for their service to the Ur III government or, derivatively, the grain produced on this type of land with resources provided by the government or temple households; see Steinkeller 1999 for a study of the Ur III šuku institution.

 

§5.5. Receipt of silver
Museum No.: E53743
Date: SS 9/xi
Provenience: Unknown

 

§5.5.1.

obv.  1.   1 gin2 ku3-babbar 1 shekel of silver
  2.   ki šu-dnisaba-ta from Šu-Nisaba,
  3.   lu2-dingir-ra Lu-dingira
  4.   šu ba-ti received.
rev.  1.   mu lu2-dingir-ra-ke4 Since Lu-dingira
  2.   kišib3 nu-tuku-a-še3 did not have a seal,
  3.   kišib3 du11-ga-ni-zi ib2-ra the seal of Duganizi was rolled.
  4.   iti ezem-an-na Month: “An Festival.”
  5.   mu e2 dšara2 ba-du3 Year: “The house of Šara was built.”
seal  1.   du11-ga-ni-zi Duganizi,
  2.   dumu ur-dšakkan6? son of Ur-Šakkan?.

 

§5.5.2. This text records the receipt of one shekel of silver by Lu-dingira from Šu-Nisaba. A third person, Duganizi, rolled his seal instead of Lu-dingira, who did not have a seal. Steinkeller (1977: 43) discusses the circumstances in which a tablet was sealed by another person other than the one expected.

 

§5.6. List of furniture pieces
Museum No.: E59405
Date: No date
Provenience: Girsu?

 

§5.6.1.

obv.  1'.   [...] ˹ZU˺ ...
  2'.   2(diš) ˹lagab˺ [gešilar?] ˹al˺-la-num2 2 blocks of ... of hazel wood,
  3'.   2(diš) [...]-gu4 nu-kuš2 2 ...,
  4'.   1(diš) gešpa4-ti-um ha-lu-ub2 ma?-ba ku3 ga2gar 1 pati’um-container made of oak? ... with silver inlay,
  5'.   1(diš) gešrin2 šuzabar 1 pair of scales with a bronze handle,
  6'.   1(diš) gešgiri3-gub ša3-kal 1 foot-stool of šakal-wood,
  7'.   1(diš) gešgiri3-gub gešasal2 1 foot-stool of poplar,
  8'.   2(diš) gešgu-za nin geššinig 2 princely chairs made of tamarisk,
  9'.   1(diš) gešgu-za gid2-da 1 long chair,
  10'.   1(diš) gešna2 gešpeš3 1 bed of fig-tree wood,
  11'.   1(diš) gešna2 gešša3-kal 1 bed of šakal-wood,
  12'.   1(diš) gešna2 gešhašhur 1 bed of apple-tree wood.
rev.      uninscribed  

 

 

§5.6.2. This text lists a number of furniture pieces and appears likely to be part of a longer register of belongings of somebody (nig2-gur11 PN). Such registers are usually undated and come mostly from Girsu. Possible parallels to our text include Berens 89, MVN 17, 7, and UDT 1, to name only a few.
Obv. 2': Restoration based on two possible parallels in texts from Ur: UET 3, 812 (IS 15/ix/20) obv. 5 and UET 3, 1498 (IS 15/xii) rev. i 16. The term gešilar(RU) is ambigous and may refer to a throwing-stick/boomerang (Cooper 1978: 127-128; Alster 1991: 6-8), a javelin (Eichler 1984: 101-102), or a bow (Groneberg 1987). As for al-la-num2, T. Sturm (2008) argues that allānu refers to hazelnuts based largely on evidence from the Old Assyrian archive from Kanesh, while most scholars identify it as oak or acorn (ibid., 297-298).
Obv. 3': A possible parallel to this line appears in UET 3, 752 (no date) rev. ii 27: 1(diš) urudasi-gu4 nu-kuš2 ig. Civil (2003: 51) translates si-gu4 as “battering ram.” Obv. 4': The name of the container also appears written as ba-ti-um (PSD B, 21-22 s.v.). A parallel to this line appears in the Girsu text MCS 1, 37, BM 106055 (SH 45/i) obv. i 14, where the sign before BA is also broken.

 

§5.7. Delivery of barley and silver
Museum No.: E29124
Date: No date
Provenience: Unknown

 

 

§5.7.1.

obv.  1.   5(u) 5(aš) 2(barig) še ˹gur˺ 55 gur 2 barig of barley,
  2.   1(u) 3(diš) 1/2(diš) ma-na 8(diš) 2/3(diš) gin2
1(u) 5(diš) še ku3-babbar
13 1/2 minas 8 2/3 shekels 15 grains of silver,
  3.   mu-˹kux(DU)˺ (as) delivery;
rev.  1.   ki ad-da-kal-la at the place of Adda-kalla.  

 

 

§5.7.2. This text records the delivery of a huge volume of barley and a significant amount of silver. A note similar to the one accompanying the tablet E29123 (no. 3.6) was found in the bag holding this tablet, but it does not bear the signature of Edgar J. Banks. The name Adda-kalla was fairly common during the Ur III period and appears attested in texts from all the major sites, including Girsu, Umma, Drehem, Nippur, and Ur. This makes it difficult to deduce the provenience of this tablet based on prosopography.
Rev. 1: See comment on no. 3.6 obv. 5.

 

§6.1. Royal inscription (clay cone)
Museum No.: E15549
Date: Isin-Larsa
Provenience: Uruk

 

§6.1.1.

cone  1.   dsuen-ka3-ši-id Sin-kašid,
  2.   nita2 kal-ga strong man,
  3.   lugal unuki-ga king of Uruk,
  4.   lugal am-na-nu-um king of Amnānum,
  5.   u2-a provider
  6.   e2-an-na of Eanna,
  7.   e2-gal his palace
  8.   nam-lugal-la-ka-ni of kingship
  9.   mu-du3 built.

 

§6.1.2. The same inscription appears on many clay cones, and the object studied here is only one example. For other examples and previous literature, see Frayne 1990: 444-447. Most recently, D. Ragavan (2010: §5.1) has published a close parallel to this inscription, which inserts the sentence u4 e2-an-na mu-du3-a, “when he built the Eanna temple,” after obv. 6 of our text.
Obv. 4: Additional attestatations of this title can be found in Groneberg 1980: 14. The term am-na-nu-um may refer to a place located in southern Mesopotamia but bordering Elam (RlA 1, 98 s.v.).

 

§6.2. Royal inscription (clay cone)
Museum No.: E59475
Date: Isin-Larsa
Provenience: Isin

 

§6.2.1.

cone col. i  1.   [d]li-pi2-it-eš18-˹dar˺ Lipit-Ištar,
  2.   sipa sun5-na humble shepherd
  3.   ˹nibru˺ki of Nippur,
  4.   engar zi faithful farmer
  5.   uri5 ki-ma of Ur,
  6.   muš3 nu-tum3-mu unceasing (provider) for
  8.   eriduki-ga Eridu,
  9.   en me-te en-priest fit for
  10.   unuki-ga Uruk,
  11.   ˹lugal˺ i3-si-inki-na king of Isin,
  12.   lugal ki-˹en-gi˺ ki-uri king of Sumer and Akkad,
      blank space
col. ii  1.   ša3-ge de6-a favorite
  2.   dinanna-me-en of Inanna, am I.
  3.   u4 nig2-si-sa2-a When justice
  4.   ki-en-gi ki-uri in Sumer and Akkad
  5.   i-ni-in-ga2-ra I established,
  6.   nam-ka3-ru-um at the irrigation canal,
  7.   ki rib-ba the preeminent place
  8.   dingir-re-e-ne-ka of the gods,
  9.   e2-nig2-si-sa2-˹a˺ the House of Justice,
  10.   mu-du3 I built.
      blank space

 

§6.2.2. This inscription commemorates the construction of e2-nig2-si-sa2, “House of Justice,” by King Lipit-Ištar, perhaps in relation to his promulgation of a lawcode (Frayne 1990: 52-54). The same inscription appears on almost a hundred other clay cones. Although most of them do not seem to have an established provenience, seven were excavated from Isin. Therefore, our clay cone probably also comes from Isin. For other examples and previous literature, see ibid. Our translation follows largely that of Frayne.

 

§6.3. Loan (damaged envelope with tablet inside)
Museum No.: E59468
Date: Old Babylonian
Provenience: Larsa?

 

§6.3.1.

obv.  1.   1(diš) 5/6 gin2 ku3-˹babbar˺ [sag?] 1 5/6 shekels of silver ...
  2.   ˹maš2 gi-na˺ ba-ab-dah-e —he (the creditor) shall add the correct interest—
  3.   ki dsuen-u2-se2-˹li˺ from Sin-uselli,
  4.   [...] dišma-x-x-im? ...
  5.   šu ba-an-ti received.
  6.   iti sig4-a še ˹u3 maš2-bi˺ In the month “Bricks,” barley and its interest
  7.   i3-ag2-e he (the debtor) shall weigh out.
rev.  1.   igi ta-ri-bu?-um? Before ...;
  2.   [igi] [d]˹suen˺-i-din-nam [before] Sin-iddinam;
  3.   [igi] x x x [before] ... ;
  4.   [igi] x-nu?-u2 [before] ... ;
  5.   [kišib lu2]-inim-ma-bi-meš sealed by the witnesses;
  6.   [... iti] ˹sig4?.a?˺ [… month:] “Bricks.”
seal      illegible ...

 

§6.3.2. This text records a loan made in silver but to be repaid in barley.
Obv. 2: The term for the interest, maš2 gi-na, is linked to the dynasty of Hammurabi and attested in loan documents concerning both barley and silver. All the examples of this phrase from the southern part of Babylonia are dated after Hammurabi conquered this region in ca. 1763 BC. This phenomenon might be linked to a mēšarum act he issued to facilitate the integration of the south (Skaist 1994: 120-122). As for the verbal form ba-ab-dah-e, it appears only in loan documents from Ur and Larsa (ibid., 101).

 

§6.4. Royal inscription (stele fragment)
Museum No.: E54113?
Date: Neo-Assyrian?
Provenience: Unknown

 

§6.4.1.

obv.  1'.   [...] ša2 kur-su x [...]
  2'.   [...] a-meš lu-u2-[...]
  3'.   [...] man-ti-a a-[...]
  4'.   [...]-˹ma?˺ u2-si-[...]
  5'.   [...]-˹maš?˺ na-meš [...]

 

§6.4.2. This text is too broken to be translated.

 

§6.5. Royal inscription (stele fragment)
Museum No.: E5608
Date: Neo-Assyrian?
Provenience: Nimrud

 

§6.5.1.

obv.  1'.   [...] diš dšul3-ma-nu-sag man kur aš-šur nun a-[...]
  2'.   [...]-meš ša2 a-pe-lu-ši !-[...]
  3'.   [...]-šu2 kur e2-a-di-ni ša2 kur hatti˺ [...]
  4'.   [...] u2-ša2-pil2 1(diš) me 2(u) tik-pi [...]

 

§6.5.2. The museum number actually written on the fragment is 306. The association of the number E54113 with this fragment is based on the description of the artifact bearing the same number in the object report, which seems to fit with the fragment.
A note written on two pieces of paper stuck to this fragment says “[e]xtract from the annals of Sardanapalus the Great. N. W. Palace. Nimrûd. Nineveh. Presented by L. W. Bacon.”
This text appears to be part of an excerpt attested in several inscriptions of Aššurnaṣirpal: RIMA 0.101.2: 52-56 (Grayson 1991: 227), 0.101.23: 14-17 (ibid., 276), and 0.101.28 v 1-7 (ibid., 285). A more elaborate version of this excerpt appears in the inscription RIMA 0.101.26: 46-57 (ibid., 281), which also mentions the construction of a canal and offerings of fruits and wine to the god Aššur.
The excerpt reads: iri kal-hu mah-ra-a ša2 1 dšul3-ma-nu-sag man kur aš-šur nun a-lik pa-ni-a du3- iri šu-u2 e-na-ah-ma iṣ-lal iri šu2-u2 ana eš-šu2-te ab-ni ug3-meš šu2-ti šu-ia ša2 kur-kur-meš ša2 a-pe-lu-ši-na-ni ša2 kur su-hi kur la-qe-e ana si-hir2-ti-ša2 iri sir-qu ša2 ne2-ber-ti i7 a-rad kur za-mu-a ana paṣ gim-ri-ša2 kur e2-a-di-ni u kur hat-te u ša2 1lu-bar-na kur pa-ti-na-a-a al-qa-a ina lib3-bi u2-ša2-aṣ-bit du6 la-be-ru lu u2-na-ki-ir a-di ugu a-meš lu u2-ša2-pil2 1 me 20 tik-pi ina muš-pa-li lu u2-ṣa-bi.
Translation: “The ancient City Calah which Šalmaneser, king of Assyria, a prince who preceded me, had built— this city had become dilapidated; it lay dormant. I rebuilt this city. I took people which I had conquered from the lands over which I had gained dominion, from the land Suhu, (from) the entire land of Laqû, (from) the city of Sirqu which is at the crossing of the Euphrates, (from) the entire land of Zamua, from Bit-Adini and the land of Hatti and from Lubarna, the Patinu. I settled (them) therein. I cleared away the old ruin hill (and) dug down to water level. I sank (the foundation pit) down to a depth of 120 layers of bricks.”
The words in bold are found on the stele fragment discussed here.
Note the two discrepancies in line 3' of the fragment: 1) –šu2 instead of –ša2 before Bit-Adini; 2) ša2 instead of u after Bit-Adini.

 

§6.6. Unclear (tablet)
Museum No.: E53807 & E59476 (cast)
Date: Neo-Babylonian?
Provenience: Unknown

 

§6.6.1.

obv.   ...
rev.   ...

 

§6.6.2. This tablet and its cast (E59476) remain unreadable despite our repeated efforts to tackle them.

 


 

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Version: 20 February 2011